A Contemporary Concept of Monetary Sovereignty

Author: Claus D. Zimmermann
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191502057
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Monetary sovereignty is a crucial legal concept dictating that states have sovereignty over their own monetary, financial, and fiscal affairs. However, it does not feature as part of any key instruments of international law, including the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund. Rather, it has remained a somewhat separate notion, developed under contemporary international law from an assertion of the former Permanent Court of International Justice in 1929. As a consequence of globalization and increasing financial integration and a worldwide trend towards the creation of economic and monetary unions, the principle of monetary sovereignty has undergone significant change. This book examines this evolution in detail, and provides a conceptual framework to demonstrate what this means for the legal and economic challenges faced by the international community. The book examines the historic origins and evolution of the concept of monetary sovereignty, putting it into the context of broader concepts of sovereignty. It argues that monetary sovereignty remains relevant as a dynamic legal concept with both positive and normative components. It investigates the continuing hybridization of international monetary law resulting from changes to its formal and material sources. It then examines the complex phenomenon of exchange rate misalignment under international monetary and trade law, and the increasing regionalization of monetary sovereignty, notably in light of the European sovereign debt crisis. Finally, it assesses the role the concept of monetary sovereignty can play in the reorganization of international finance following the recent global financial crisis.

Complicity in International Law

Author: Miles Jackson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191056758
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.

Corporate Obligations under International Law

Author: Markos Karavias
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191656135
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book examines the extent to which international law places obligations directly on corporate entities. It is often argued that corporations are bound by, inter alia, the same human rights and environmental obligations that states have. This book examines the source of these supposed obligations in treaty law, international custom, and in internationalized contracts, to determine whether they really can be transposed to corporations so easily. The focus of the book is on the regulation by international law of private corporate conduct. It examines whether corporate obligations, namely obligations binding directly upon a corporation under positive international law, have indeed emerged, and if so, whether corporations may be systemically included in the predominantly state-centric framework of international law. It investigates the challenges facing international law as a result of the potential emergence of corporate obligations, and engages in a structural analysis of what corporate obligations under international human rights law might entail. Ultimately, it warns against conceptualizing corporations as both holders and potential violators of human rights, explaining why they are not automatically bound by the same obligations that are imposed on states.

Economic Social and Cultural Rights in Armed Conflict

Author: Gilles Giacca
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026913
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book addresses the international legal obligation to protect economic, social, and cultural human rights in times of armed conflict and other situations of armed violence. These rights provide guarantees to individuals of their fundamental rights to work, to an adequate standard of living (food, water, housing), to education, and to health. Armed violence can take many forms, from civil unrest or protest and other forms of internal disturbances and tensions to higher levels of violence that may amount to armed conflict, whether of an international or of a non-international character. However, in all such cases the protection of ESC rights is sorely challenged. Situations of actual or potential violence present a number of challenges to the application and implementation of human rights law in general and socio-economic rights obligations more specifically. This book sets out the legal framework, defining what constitutes a minimum universal standard of human rights protection applicable in all circumstances. It assesses the concept and content of ESC rights' obligations, and evaluates how far they can be legally applicable in various scenarios of armed violence. By looking at the specific human rights treaty provisions, it discusses how far ESC rights obligations can be affected by practical and legal challenges to their implementation. The book addresses the key issues facing the protection of such rights in times of armed conflict: the legal conditions to limit ESC rights on security grounds, including the use of force; the extraterritorial applicability of international human rights treaties setting out ESC rights; the relationship between human rights law and international humanitarian law; and the obligations of non-state actors under human rights law and with particular relevance to the protection of ESC rights. The book assesses the nature of these potential challenges to the protection of ESC rights, and offers solutions to reinforce their continued application.

Staateninsolvenz

Author: Georg E. Kodek
Publisher: Bank Verlag Wien
ISBN: 9783851360950
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Die Frage der Staateninsolvenz ist durch die gegenwärtige Finanzkrise besonders aktuell. Gleichwohl handelt es sich dabei keineswegs um ein neues Phänomen. Die bisherige Praxis war meist durch Ad-hoc-Lösungen im Rahmen des sogenannten Pariser oder Londonder Klubs gekennzeichnet. Der vorliegende Sammelband enthält Beiträge zur Staateninsolvenz aus historischer, ökonomischer und juristischer Sicht. Dabei werden Modelle für die Insolvenz von Gebietskörperschaften als mögliche Vorbilder für ein Staateninsolvenzverfahren ebenso erörtert wie ein möglicher künftiger Staateninsolvenzmechanismus auf völkerrechtlicher Ebene.

Philosophie des Geldes

Author: Georg Simmel
Publisher: FV Éditions
ISBN: 2366687516
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Das Geld steht vermöge der Abstraktheit seiner Form jenseits aller bestimmten Beziehungen zum Raum: Es kann seine Wirkungen in die weitesten Fernen erstrecken, ja, es ist gewissermaßen in jedem Augenblick der Mittelpunkt eines Kreises potenzieller Wirkungen." G. Simmel Inhaltsverzeichnis : . Wert und Geld . Der Substanzwert des Geldes . Das Geld in den Zweckreihen . Die individuelle Freiheit . Das Geldäquivalent personaler Werte . Der Stil des Lebens