A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: John Losee
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0198700555
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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John Losee provides a balanced and engaging survey of the development of views about scientific method. Ideal for those coming to the subject for the first time, this fully updated new edition incorporates discussion on contemporary debates, including philosophy of biology, normative naturalism, theory appraisal, experimental practice, and scientific realism. Concise profiles of the major philosophers discussed within the text are provided, including Aristotle, Galileo, Newton, Whewell, Hempel, and Kuhn.

Philosophy in Science

Author: Michael Heller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642177057
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The traditional topics of the "philosophy of nature" — space, time, causality, the structure of the universe — are overwhelmingly present in our modern scientific theories. This book traces the complex paths that discussion of these topics has followed, from Plato and Aristotle, through Descartes, Leibniz, Kant and other great thinkers, right up to the relativistic cosmologies and the grand unified theories of contemporary science. In the light of this historical development, it becomes clear that modern science gives us not only a technological power over the world, but also a deeper understanding of physical reality. In this sense, science could be regarded as an heir to the traditional "philosophy of nature". Moreover, the reader will learn why science itself deserves to be the subject of philosophical reflection.

A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: John Losee
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780198850779
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Designed for first-time readers of the subject, this stimulating introduction offers a historical exposition of differing views on the philosophy of science. With concise profiles presenting the major philosophers whose contributions are discussed in this book, Losee explores the long-arguedquestions raised by philosophers and scientists about the proper evaluation of science. This new edition incorporates contemporary developments in the discipline, including recent work on theory-appraisal, experimental practice, the debate over scientific realism, and the philosophy of biology.Taking a balanced and informative approach, this work is the ideal introductory volume.

Science Rules

Author: Peter Achinstein
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801879449
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Is there a universal set of rules for discovering and testing scientific hypotheses? Since the birth of modern science, philosophers, scientists, and other thinkers have wrestled with this fundamental question of scientific practice. Efforts to devise rigorous methods for obtaining scientific knowledge include the twenty-one rules Descartes proposed in his Rules for the Direction of the Mind and the four rules of reasoning that begin the third book of Newton's Principia, and continue today in debates over the very possibility of such rules. Bringing together key primary sources spanning almost four centuries, Science Rules introduces readers to scientific methods that have played a prominent role in the history of scientific practice. Editor Peter Achinstein includes works by scientists and philosophers of science to offer a new perspective on the nature of scientific reasoning. For each of the methods discussed, he presents the original formulation of the method; selections written by a proponent of the method together with an application to a particular scientific example; and a critical analysis of the method that draws on historical and contemporary sources. The methods included in this volume are Cartesian rationalism with an application to Descartes' laws of motion; Newton's inductivism and the law of gravity; two versions of hypothetico-deductivism—those of William Whewell and Karl Popper—and the nineteenth-century wave theory of light; Paul Feyerabend's principle of proliferation and Thomas Kuhn's views on scientific values, both of which deny that there are universal rules of method, with an application to Galileo's tower argument. Included also is a famous nineteenth-century debate about scientific reasoning between the hypothetico-deductivist William Whewell and the inductivist John Stuart Mill; and an account of the realism-antirealism dispute about unobservables in science, with a consideration of Perrin's argument for the existence of molecules in the early twentieth century.

A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind

Author: Peter A. Morton
Publisher: Broadview Press
ISBN: 9781551110875
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind is designed both to provide a selection of core readings on the subject and to make those readings accessible by providing commentaries to guide the reader through initially intimidating material. Each commentary explains technical concepts and provides background on obscure arguments as they arise, setting them in the historical and intellectual milieu from which they emerged. The readings concentrate on providing the student with a solid grounding in the theories of representative figures of the major philosophical movements, from Plato and Aristotle to important recent figures such as Fodor and Dennett. A glossary of key terms is also included.

Metaphysics of Science

Author: Markus Schrenk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317273052
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Metaphysics and science have a long but troubled relationship. In the twentieth century the Logical Positivists argued metaphysics was irrelevant and that philosophy should be guided by science. However, metaphysics and science attempt to answer many of the same, fundamental questions: What are laws of nature? What is causation? What are natural kinds? In this book, Markus Schrenk examines and explains the central questions and problems in the metaphysics of science. He reviews the development of the field from the early modern period through to the latest research, systematically assessing key topics including: dispositions counterfactual conditionals laws of nature causation properties natural kinds essence necessity. With the addition of chapter summaries and annotated further reading, Metaphysics of Science is a much-needed, clear and informative survey of this exciting area of philosophical research. It is essential reading for students and scholars of philosophy of science and metaphysics.

Between science and history

Author: Jacques G. Ruelland
Publisher: Editions Publibook
ISBN: 2753903948
Format: PDF
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This essay bridges the two wings of Popper's thinking, political philosophy and philosophy of science, thus steering a middle course between the two major receptions. It offers the double advantage of providing a faithful presentation of Popper's theses on the one hand, and of highlighting the links between the "falsificationist" theory of science and the liberal political thinking which together form the only way to an understanding of Popper's attack on "historicism", particularly Marxism, in his "Poverty of Historicism". Popper's political philosophy is extremely aggressive, especially in "The Open Society and its Enemies", but makes an effort to stress the point of the controversies it has raised, to present the objections from the Anglo-Saxon camp itself, which are all but unknown to continental philosophy. In this way he facilitates an inquiry into the possibility of a critical application of Popper's theses on history.

Worldviews

Author: Richard DeWitt
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 144439276X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Updated throughout and with three entirely new chapters, Worldviews: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science, Second Edition furthers its reputation as the definitive introductory text on the historical developments and philosophical issues that inform our scientific view of the world around us. Represents an innovative introduction to the history and philosophy of science, designed especially for those coming to the subject for the first time Updated new edition features the addition of chapters focusing on scientific laws, evolutionary theory, and implications of evolution Covers the key historical developments and philosophical themes that have impacted our scientific view of the world around us Analyzes the transitions from the Aristotelian worldview to the Newtonian worldview to a new and currently developing worldview Explores challenges to the Western scientific worldview brought on by recent discoveries

An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics A Reader

Author: Russell Marcus
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472529480
Format: PDF, Docs
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A comprehensive collection of historical readings in the philosophy of mathematics and a selection of influential contemporary work, this much-needed introduction reveals the rich history of the subject. An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader brings together an impressive collection of primary sources from ancient and modern philosophy. Arranged chronologically and featuring introductory overviews explaining technical terms, this accessible reader is easy-to-follow and unrivaled in its historical scope. With selections from key thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume and Kant, it connects the major ideas of the ancients with contemporary thinkers. A selection of recent texts from philosophers including Quine, Putnam, Field and Maddy offering insights into the current state of the discipline clearly illustrates the development of the subject. Presenting historical background essential to understanding contemporary trends and a survey of recent work, An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader is required reading for undergraduates and graduate students studying the philosophy of mathematics and an invaluable source book for working researchers.