A Primer on Clinical Experience in Medicine

Author: Milos Jenicek, MD
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466578793
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Mastery of quality health care and patient safety begins as soon as we open the hospital doors for the first time and start acquiring practical experience. The acquisition of such experience includes much more than the development of sensorimotor skills and basic knowledge of the sciences. It relies on effective reasoning, decision making, and communication shared by all health professionals, including physicians, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, physiotherapists, and administrators. A Primer on Clinical Experience in Medicine: Reasoning, Decision Making, and Communication in Health Sciences is about these essential skills. It describes how physicians and health professionals reason, make decisions, and practice medicine. Covering the basic considerations related to clinical and caregiver reasoning, it lays out a roadmap to help those new to health care as well as seasoned veterans overcome the complexities of working for the well-being of those who trust us with their physical, mental, and spiritual health. The book provides a step-by-step breakdown of the reasoning process for clinical work and clinical care. It examines both general and medical ways of thinking, reasoning, argumentation, fact finding, and using evidence. Outlining the fundamentals of decision making, it integrates coverage of clinical reasoning, risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in evidence-based medicine. It also: Describes how to evaluate the success (effectiveness and cure) and failure (error and harm) of clinical and community actions Considers communication with patients and outlines strategies, successes, failures, and possible remedies—including offices, bedside, intervention, and care settings Examines strategies, successes, failures, and possible remedies for communication with peers—including interpersonal communication, morning reports, rounds, and research gatherings The book describes vehicles, opportunities, and environments for enhanced professional communication, including patient interviews, clinical case reports, and morning reports. It includes numerous examples that demonstrate the importance of sound reasoning, decision making, and communication and also considers future implications for research, management, planning, and evaluation.

Writing Reading and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences

Author: Milos Jenicek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482226456
Format: PDF
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Medical articles are one of the main vehicles of knowledge translation and evidence communication in the health sciences. Their correct structure and style alone are no longer enough to convey a clear understanding of the intended message. Readers must be able to understand the very essence of the article message. That is the purpose of this book. Writing, Reading, and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences: Medical Articles and Other Forms of Communication will help the authors of medical articles communicate more effectively in today's practice and health research environment. It explores the most effective practices for communicating using three main medical literature formats: through scientific articles, articles where the subject is not based on the practice of the scientific method, and business reports. Describing how to think beyond the prevailing IMRAD article format, this book focuses on the nature, content, domains of thought, and meanings of medical articles. The ideas and underlying propositions in this book are complementary to specific requirements appropriate for each type of medical journal. After reading this book you will better understand: How to write what is considered the most important type of medical article, the research-based medical article How to write an evidence-based argumentative medical article The challenges of clinical case reporting The general framework of medical and research ethics Classification of medical articles and their underlying studies from the causal standpoint Supplying you with the understanding required to write more effective medical articles, the book includes details about essay-type articles, research-based articles, thesis as introduction sections, definitions as part of the material and methods sections, modern argumentation and critical thinking underlying results and their discussion and conclusions about them. It also examines qualitative research and case study methodologies from other domains. A must-read for all writers, readers, and users of medical articles, this book supplies the tools you need to write compelling medical reports that can help to improve the practice, research, and quality of healthcare at all levels.

Encyclopedia of Bohemian and Czech American Biography

Author: Miloslav Rechcigl Jr.
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 1524619906
Format: PDF, Docs
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As the Czech ambassador to the United States, H. E. Petr Gandalovic noted in his foreword to this book that Mla Rechcgl has written a monumental work representing a culmination of his life achievement as a historian of Czech America. The Encyclopedia of Bohemian and Czech American Biography is a unique and unparalleled publication. The enormity of this undertaking is reflected in the fact that it covers a universe, starting a few decades after the discovery of the New World, through the escapades and significant contributions of Bohemian Jesuits and Moravian brethren in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the mass migration of the Czechs after the revolutionary year of 1848, and up to the early years of the twentieth century and the influx of refugees from Nazism and communism. The encyclopedia has been planned as a representative, a comprehensive and authoritative reference tool, encompassing over 7,500 biographies. This prodigious and unparalleled encyclopedic vade mecum, reflecting enduring contributions of notable Americans with Czech roots, is not only an invaluable tool for all researchers and students of Czech American history but is also a carte blanche for the Czech Republic, which considers Czech Americans as their own and as a part of its magnificent cultural history.

Medical Decision Making

Author: Alan Schwartz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107320062
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Decision making is a key activity, perhaps the most important activity, in the practice of healthcare. Although physicians acquire a great deal of knowledge and specialised skills during their training and through their practice, it is in the exercise of clinical judgement and its application to individual patients that the outstanding physician is distinguished. This has become even more relevant as patients become increasingly welcomed as partners in a shared decision making process. This book translates the research and theory from the science of decision making into clinically useful tools and principles that can be applied by clinicians in the field. It considers issues of patient goals, uncertainty, judgement, choice, development of new information, and family and social concerns in healthcare. It helps to demystify decision theory by emphasizing concepts and clinical cases over mathematics and computation.

Relationship Power in Health Care

Author: John B. Livingstone, M.D.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482264293
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The personal interface between clinician and patient is a misunderstood subject which can impact all areas of health care. Without adequate training in relationship science clinicians inadvertently contribute to empathic failure, poor medical decision process, difficulty changing health-related behavior, costly variation and derailment of care, extra litigation, and clinician burnout. Relationship Power in Health Care presents new knowledge and skills that empower health care and wellness professionals to become competent facilitators of behavior and lifestyle change, information transfer, and medical decision making in collaboration with their patients. The new approaches are supported by a wide variety of research and clinical evidence, derived from modern psychotherapy, brain biology, and the latest advances in health coaching and nursing science. Putting them to work to improve health care makes good sense both scientifically and ethically. This comprehensive text integrates past health psychology models starting from the 1950s with recent advances made since the 1990s in relationship psychology and interpersonal neurobiology. It also includes videos of brief medical interviews along with analysis of the strategies and tactics used. The tactics outlined and the interview demonstrations, conducted by a highly experienced clinical social worker and nurse Joanne Gaffney, offer a unique opportunity for all clinicians to acquire valuable skills in both clinician self-care and patient care.

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Keith J. Holyoak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199313792
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning brings together the contributions of many of the leading researchers in thinking and reasoning to create the most comprehensive overview of research on thinking and reasoning that has ever been available.

Improving Diagnosis in Health Care

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309377692
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Getting the right diagnosis is a key aspect of health care - it provides an explanation of a patient's health problem and informs subsequent health care decisions. The diagnostic process is a complex, collaborative activity that involves clinical reasoning and information gathering to determine a patient's health problem. According to Improving Diagnosis in Health Care, diagnostic errors-inaccurate or delayed diagnoses-persist throughout all settings of care and continue to harm an unacceptable number of patients. It is likely that most people will experience at least one diagnostic error in their lifetime, sometimes with devastating consequences. Diagnostic errors may cause harm to patients by preventing or delaying appropriate treatment, providing unnecessary or harmful treatment, or resulting in psychological or financial repercussions. The committee concluded that improving the diagnostic process is not only possible, but also represents a moral, professional, and public health imperative. Improving Diagnosis in Health Care a continuation of the landmark Institute of Medicine reports To Err Is Human (2000) and Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001) finds that diagnosis-and, in particular, the occurrence of diagnostic errorsâ€"has been largely unappreciated in efforts to improve the quality and safety of health care. Without a dedicated focus on improving diagnosis, diagnostic errors will likely worsen as the delivery of health care and the diagnostic process continue to increase in complexity. Just as the diagnostic process is a collaborative activity, improving diagnosis will require collaboration and a widespread commitment to change among health care professionals, health care organizations, patients and their families, researchers, and policy makers. The recommendations of Improving Diagnosis in Health Care contribute to the growing momentum for change in this crucial area of health care quality and safety.

Principles and Practice of Case based Clinical Reasoning Education

Author: Olle ten Cate
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319648284
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This volume describes and explains the educational method of Case-Based Clinical Reasoning (CBCR) used successfully in medical schools to prepare students to think like doctors before they enter the clinical arena and become engaged in patient care. Although this approach poses the paradoxical problem of a lack of clinical experience that is so essential for building proficiency in clinical reasoning, CBCR is built on the premise that solving clinical problems involves the ability to reason about disease processes. This requires knowledge of anatomy and the working and pathology of organ systems, as well as the ability to regard patient problems as patterns and compare them with instances of illness scripts of patients the clinician has seen in the past and stored in memory. CBCR stimulates the development of early, rudimentary illness scripts through elaboration and systematic discussion of the courses of action from the initial presentation of the patient to the final steps of clinical management. The book combines general backgrounds of clinical reasoning education and assessment with a detailed elaboration of the CBCR method for application in any medical curriculum, either as a mandatory or as an elective course. It consists of three parts: a general introduction to clinical reasoning education, application of the CBCR method, and cases that can used by educators to try out this method.

Clinical Epidemiology Evidence Based Medicine

Author: David L. Katz
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506319653
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"The presentation is consistently excellent. One, the writing is lucid and organized in a way that should be very natural for the clinical reader. Two, the text requires no background in mathematics and uses a minimum of symbols. And, three, the methodological concepts and clinical issues are well integrated through a number of carefully prepared and comprehensive examples." Greg Samsa, Associate Director, Duke Center for Clinical Health Policy Research If a patient is older or younger than, sicker or healthier than, taller or shorter than or simply different from the subjects of a study, do the results pertain? Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-based Medicine is a resource for all health-care workers involved in applying evidence to the care of their patients. Using clinical examples and citing liberally from the peer-reviewed literature, the book shows how statistical principles can improve medical decisions. Plus, as Katz shows how probability, risk and alternatives are fundamental considerations in all clinical decisions, he demonstrates the intuitive basis for using clinical epidemiolgy as a science underlying medical decisions. After reading this text, the practitioner should be better able to access, interpret, and apply evidence to patient care as well as better understand and control the process of medical decision making.

Conflict of Interest in Medical Research Education and Practice

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309145449
Format: PDF, ePub
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Collaborations of physicians and researchers with industry can provide valuable benefits to society, particularly in the translation of basic scientific discoveries to new therapies and products. Recent reports and news stories have, however, documented disturbing examples of relationships and practices that put at risk the integrity of medical research, the objectivity of professional education, the quality of patient care, the soundness of clinical practice guidelines, and the public's trust in medicine. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice provides a comprehensive look at conflict of interest in medicine. It offers principles to inform the design of policies to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest without damaging constructive collaboration with industry. It calls for both short-term actions and long-term commitments by institutions and individuals, including leaders of academic medical centers, professional societies, patient advocacy groups, government agencies, and drug, device, and pharmaceutical companies. Failure of the medical community to take convincing action on conflicts of interest invites additional legislative or regulatory measures that may be overly broad or unduly burdensome. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice makes several recommendations for strengthening conflict of interest policies and curbing relationships that create risks with little benefit. The book will serve as an invaluable resource for individuals and organizations committed to high ethical standards in all realms of medicine.