A Primer on Clinical Experience in Medicine

Author: Milos Jenicek, MD
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466515589
Format: PDF
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Mastery of quality health care and patient safety begins as soon as we open the hospital doors for the first time and start acquiring practical experience. The acquisition of such experience includes much more than the development of sensorimotor skills and basic knowledge of the sciences. It relies on effective reasoning, decision making, and communication shared by all health professionals, including physicians, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, physiotherapists, and administrators. A Primer on Clinical Experience in Medicine: Reasoning, Decision Making, and Communication in Health Sciences is about these essential skills. It describes how physicians and health professionals reason, make decisions, and practice medicine. Covering the basic considerations related to clinical and caregiver reasoning, it lays out a roadmap to help those new to health care as well as seasoned veterans overcome the complexities of working for the well-being of those who trust us with their physical, mental, and spiritual health. The book provides a step-by-step breakdown of the reasoning process for clinical work and clinical care. It examines both general and medical ways of thinking, reasoning, argumentation, fact finding, and using evidence. Outlining the fundamentals of decision making, it integrates coverage of clinical reasoning, risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in evidence-based medicine. It also: Describes how to evaluate the success (effectiveness and cure) and failure (error and harm) of clinical and community actions Considers communication with patients and outlines strategies, successes, failures, and possible remedies—including offices, bedside, intervention, and care settings Examines strategies, successes, failures, and possible remedies for communication with peers—including interpersonal communication, morning reports, rounds, and research gatherings The book describes vehicles, opportunities, and environments for enhanced professional communication, including patient interviews, clinical case reports, and morning reports. It includes numerous examples that demonstrate the importance of sound reasoning, decision making, and communication and also considers future implications for research, management, planning, and evaluation.

Writing Reading and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences

Author: Milos Jenicek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482226456
Format: PDF, Docs
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Medical articles are one of the main vehicles of knowledge translation and evidence communication in the health sciences. Their correct structure and style alone are no longer enough to convey a clear understanding of the intended message. Readers must be able to understand the very essence of the article message. That is the purpose of this book. Writing, Reading, and Understanding in Modern Health Sciences: Medical Articles and Other Forms of Communication will help the authors of medical articles communicate more effectively in today's practice and health research environment. It explores the most effective practices for communicating using three main medical literature formats: through scientific articles, articles where the subject is not based on the practice of the scientific method, and business reports. Describing how to think beyond the prevailing IMRAD article format, this book focuses on the nature, content, domains of thought, and meanings of medical articles. The ideas and underlying propositions in this book are complementary to specific requirements appropriate for each type of medical journal. After reading this book you will better understand: How to write what is considered the most important type of medical article, the research-based medical article How to write an evidence-based argumentative medical article The challenges of clinical case reporting The general framework of medical and research ethics Classification of medical articles and their underlying studies from the causal standpoint Supplying you with the understanding required to write more effective medical articles, the book includes details about essay-type articles, research-based articles, thesis as introduction sections, definitions as part of the material and methods sections, modern argumentation and critical thinking underlying results and their discussion and conclusions about them. It also examines qualitative research and case study methodologies from other domains. A must-read for all writers, readers, and users of medical articles, this book supplies the tools you need to write compelling medical reports that can help to improve the practice, research, and quality of healthcare at all levels.

Encyclopedia of Bohemian and Czech American Biography

Author: Miloslav Rechcigl Jr.
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 1524619906
Format: PDF
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As the Czech ambassador to the United States, H. E. Petr Gandalovic noted in his foreword to this book that Mla Rechcgl has written a monumental work representing a culmination of his life achievement as a historian of Czech America. The Encyclopedia of Bohemian and Czech American Biography is a unique and unparalleled publication. The enormity of this undertaking is reflected in the fact that it covers a universe, starting a few decades after the discovery of the New World, through the escapades and significant contributions of Bohemian Jesuits and Moravian brethren in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the mass migration of the Czechs after the revolutionary year of 1848, and up to the early years of the twentieth century and the influx of refugees from Nazism and communism. The encyclopedia has been planned as a representative, a comprehensive and authoritative reference tool, encompassing over 7,500 biographies. This prodigious and unparalleled encyclopedic vade mecum, reflecting enduring contributions of notable Americans with Czech roots, is not only an invaluable tool for all researchers and students of Czech American history but is also a carte blanche for the Czech Republic, which considers Czech Americans as their own and as a part of its magnificent cultural history.

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Keith J. Holyoak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199313792
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning brings together the contributions of many of the leading researchers in thinking and reasoning to create the most comprehensive overview of research on thinking and reasoning that has ever been available.

ABC of Clinical Reasoning

Author: Nicola Cooper
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119059089
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Being a good clinician is not just about knowledge – how doctors and other healthcare professionals think, reason and make decisions is arguably their most critical skill. While medical schools and postgraduate training programmes teach and assess the knowledge and skills required to practice as a doctor, few offer comprehensive training in clinical reasoning or decision making. This is important because studies suggest that diagnostic error is common and results in significant harm to patients – and errors in reasoning account for the majority of diagnostic errors. The ABC of Clinical Reasoning covers core elements of the thinking and decision making associated with clinical practice – from what clinical reasoning is, what it involves and how to teach it. Informed by the latest advances in cognitive psychology, education and studies of expertise, the ABC covers: Evidence-based history and examination Use and interpretation of diagnostic tests How doctors think – models of clinical reasoning Cognitive and affective biases Metacognition and cognitive de-biasing strategies Patient-centred evidence based medicine Teaching clinical reasoning From an international team of authors, the ABC of Clinical Reasoning is essential reading for all students, medical professionals and other clinicians involved in diagnosis, in order to improve their decision-making skills and provide better patient care.

Relationship Power in Health Care

Author: John B. Livingstone, M.D.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482264293
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The personal interface between clinician and patient is a misunderstood subject which can impact all areas of health care. Without adequate training in relationship science clinicians inadvertently contribute to empathic failure, poor medical decision process, difficulty changing health-related behavior, costly variation and derailment of care, extra litigation, and clinician burnout. Relationship Power in Health Care presents new knowledge and skills that empower health care and wellness professionals to become competent facilitators of behavior and lifestyle change, information transfer, and medical decision making in collaboration with their patients. The new approaches are supported by a wide variety of research and clinical evidence, derived from modern psychotherapy, brain biology, and the latest advances in health coaching and nursing science. Putting them to work to improve health care makes good sense both scientifically and ethically. This comprehensive text integrates past health psychology models starting from the 1950s with recent advances made since the 1990s in relationship psychology and interpersonal neurobiology. It also includes videos of brief medical interviews along with analysis of the strategies and tactics used. The tactics outlined and the interview demonstrations, conducted by a highly experienced clinical social worker and nurse Joanne Gaffney, offer a unique opportunity for all clinicians to acquire valuable skills in both clinician self-care and patient care.

Reasoning in Medicine

Author: Daniel Albert
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781500573867
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Clinical reasoning and decision making take place within a complicated conceptual framework. The purpose of this book is to identify and analyze components of this framework and to lay bare the processes of reasoning and inference that are (or can be) involved in arriving at and justifying clinical decisions. Reasoning in Medicine begins with a detailed fictional case history, presented in the form of a series of dramatized scenarios, that serves as a touchstone for the book's analytical concerns. The authors analyze, in turn, the acquisition and evaluation of clinically relevant data; inductive and deductive methods of using data to arrive at defensible clinical conclusions; the place of clinical medicine within the full realm of scientific hypotheses, laws, and theories; the concept, identification, and classification of disease; the concept of diagnosis and the nature of diagnostic reasoning; and clinical decision making from the standpoint of formal decision analysis. Clearly written and avoiding both jargon and unnecessary technical language, the book presumes no knowledge of philosophy, logic, or mathematics, and includes an extensive annotated bibliography. This is a work that should find a wide readership among physicians, physicians in training, nursing professionals, medicals sociologists, and philosophers of medicine and science.

Clinical Epidemiology Evidence Based Medicine

Author: David L. Katz
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506319653
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"The presentation is consistently excellent. One, the writing is lucid and organized in a way that should be very natural for the clinical reader. Two, the text requires no background in mathematics and uses a minimum of symbols. And, three, the methodological concepts and clinical issues are well integrated through a number of carefully prepared and comprehensive examples." Greg Samsa, Associate Director, Duke Center for Clinical Health Policy Research If a patient is older or younger than, sicker or healthier than, taller or shorter than or simply different from the subjects of a study, do the results pertain? Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-based Medicine is a resource for all health-care workers involved in applying evidence to the care of their patients. Using clinical examples and citing liberally from the peer-reviewed literature, the book shows how statistical principles can improve medical decisions. Plus, as Katz shows how probability, risk and alternatives are fundamental considerations in all clinical decisions, he demonstrates the intuitive basis for using clinical epidemiolgy as a science underlying medical decisions. After reading this text, the practitioner should be better able to access, interpret, and apply evidence to patient care as well as better understand and control the process of medical decision making.

Improving Diagnosis in Health Care

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309377692
Format: PDF
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Getting the right diagnosis is a key aspect of health care - it provides an explanation of a patient's health problem and informs subsequent health care decisions. The diagnostic process is a complex, collaborative activity that involves clinical reasoning and information gathering to determine a patient's health problem. According to Improving Diagnosis in Health Care, diagnostic errors-inaccurate or delayed diagnoses-persist throughout all settings of care and continue to harm an unacceptable number of patients. It is likely that most people will experience at least one diagnostic error in their lifetime, sometimes with devastating consequences. Diagnostic errors may cause harm to patients by preventing or delaying appropriate treatment, providing unnecessary or harmful treatment, or resulting in psychological or financial repercussions. The committee concluded that improving the diagnostic process is not only possible, but also represents a moral, professional, and public health imperative. Improving Diagnosis in Health Care a continuation of the landmark Institute of Medicine reports To Err Is Human (2000) and Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001) finds that diagnosis-and, in particular, the occurrence of diagnostic errorsâ€"has been largely unappreciated in efforts to improve the quality and safety of health care. Without a dedicated focus on improving diagnosis, diagnostic errors will likely worsen as the delivery of health care and the diagnostic process continue to increase in complexity. Just as the diagnostic process is a collaborative activity, improving diagnosis will require collaboration and a widespread commitment to change among health care professionals, health care organizations, patients and their families, researchers, and policy makers. The recommendations of Improving Diagnosis in Health Care contribute to the growing momentum for change in this crucial area of health care quality and safety.