Patents Human Rights and Access to Science

Author: Aurora Plomer
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1783475935
Format: PDF, ePub
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The new millennium has been described as ‘the century of biology’, but scientific progress and access to medicines has been marred by global disputes over ownership of the science by universities and private companies. This book examines the challenges posed by the modern patent system to the right of everyone to access the benefits of science in international law. Aurora Plomer retraces the genesis and evolution of the key Articles in the UN system (Article 27 UDHR and Article 15 ICESCR). She combines the historiography of these Articles with a novel perspective on the moral foundations of rights of access to science to draw out implications for today’s controversies on patents in the life-sciences. The analysis suggests that access to science as a fundamental right requires both freedom from political and religious interference and the existence of enabling research institutions and educational facilities which promote the flow of knowledge through transparent and open structures. From this perspective, the global patent system is shown to fail spectacularly when it comes to the human rights ideal of universal access to science. The book concludes that a fundamental restructuring of patent institutions is required, in which democratic oversight of patent policies would ensure meaningful realization of the right of everyone to access the benefits of science. Students and scholars of international law, particularly those focusing on intellectual property and human rights, will find this book to be of considerable interest. It will also be of use to practitioners in the field.

Identifying Potential for Equitable Access to Tertiary Level Science

Author: Marissa Rollnick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048132249
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Higher education internationally is in a state of transition and transformation, leading to an increase in the level of participation, and a consequent increase in number of non traditional and underprepared students. The appearance of these students provides a particular challenge in the sciences where adequate grounding is crucial. One response to this challenge has been the provision of access, foundation or "second chance programmes" which operate on different models internationally. In South Africa, where the push for equity is strong in the wake of the apartheid era, programmes have generally been established at all tertiary institutions with some of the most successful of these programmes based at universities characterised by a high research output. Consequently in the last decade there has been a great deal of research into the effectiveness of these programmes both at a micro and macro level. Similar research in other countries exists, but is patchy and often based on small groups of students. This book provides valuable information on what research has to say about disadvantaged and under prepared science students and how they learn - what works and what does not work. It provides an examination of issues related to the programmes, their structure, student selection and adjustment. Issues such the learning of these students, their communicative ability and laboratory work come under the spotlight. Although examining the issue internationally, the book draws heavily on lessons from South Africa where there has been considerably experience of such programmes.

ACCESS to Earth and Physical Science

Author: Shauna Adams;Joy Comingore
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1503543706
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The investigations are designed to be used by teachers, family child care providers and others who work with and care for young children. There are two series of investigation sample books: • One series is designed for preschool and kindergarten age children and, with minor adjustments, can be appropriate for children in the primary grades. • The second series is designed for infants and toddlers. Each investigation contains a series of engaging, open-ended experiences that inspire curiosity and inquiry as young children investigate important science topics.

McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Volumes 1 20 11th Edition

Author: McGraw-Hill Education
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9780071792738
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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From acoustics to zoology, the bestselling, authoritative encyclopedia that brings the latest in science and technology to students Celebrating more than 50 years of bringing knowledge to readers at all levels of study, the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 11th Edition provides need-to-know information in the major disciplines of science and technology. All entries are commissioned from leading authorities in their fields; each is technically reviewed, signed, edited, illustrated, and produced to the highest standards for ease of access and comprehension. The text is accompanied by 13,000 two-color illustrations and 100 full-color plates throughout. A dedicated index volume provides you with easy access to information through subject and author indexes and study and topical guides. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 11th Edition is a major revision, with 2,500 new and thoroughly revised entries, and updates on more than 7,000 entries. Coverage spans the hottest fields of science and technology, including Cell, developmental, and molecular biology, with articles on stem cell technology, new insights into RNA functions Chemistry, including updates on the newest elements and analytical technology Climate science and meteorology, with full background on climate change research Cloud computing, data warehousing, computer security among many other areas of information technology Cosmology, including coverage of dark matter, dark energy, and advances in the study of the age and shape of the universe Environmental science, with the latest on environmental conservation, and novel energy sources Engineering--civil, chemical, electrical, environmental, mechanical, metallurgical, and other areas extensively updated Genetics Neuroscience Plant sciences and agriculture Zoology

Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data and Information for Science

Author: U.S. National Committee for CODATA
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309091454
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This symposium, which was held on March 10-11, 2003, at UNESCO headquarters in Paris, brought together policy experts and managers from the government and academic sectors in both developed and developing countries to (1) describe the role, value, and limits that the public domain and open access to digital data and information have in the context of international research; (2) identify and analyze the various legal, economic, and technological pressures on the public domain in digital data and information, and their potential effects on international research; and (3) review the existing and proposed approaches for preserving and promoting the public domain and open access to scientific and technical data and information on a global basis, with particular attention to the needs of developing countries.

Access to Science for Infants and Toddlers

Author: Comingore Baldwin
ISBN: 9781469197852
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Contains a series of engaging, open-ended experiences that inspire curiosity and inquiry as young children investigate important science topics"--Page 9.

Opening Science

Author: Sönke Bartling
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319000268
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Modern information and communication technologies, together with a cultural upheaval within the research community, have profoundly changed research in nearly every aspect. Ranging from sharing and discussing ideas in social networks for scientists to new collaborative environments and novel publication formats, knowledge creation and dissemination as we know it is experiencing a vigorous shift towards increased transparency, collaboration and accessibility. Many assume that research workflows will change more in the next 20 years than they have in the last 200. This book provides researchers, decision makers, and other scientific stakeholders with a snapshot of the basics, the tools, and the underlying visions that drive the current scientific (r)evolution, often called ‘Open Science.’