Patents Human Rights and Access to Science

Author: Aurora Plomer
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1783475935
Format: PDF
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The new millennium has been described as ‘the century of biology’, but scientific progress and access to medicines has been marred by global disputes over ownership of the science by universities and private companies. This book examines the challenges posed by the modern patent system to the right of everyone to access the benefits of science in international law. Aurora Plomer retraces the genesis and evolution of the key Articles in the UN system (Article 27 UDHR and Article 15 ICESCR). She combines the historiography of these Articles with a novel perspective on the moral foundations of rights of access to science to draw out implications for today’s controversies on patents in the life-sciences. The analysis suggests that access to science as a fundamental right requires both freedom from political and religious interference and the existence of enabling research institutions and educational facilities which promote the flow of knowledge through transparent and open structures. From this perspective, the global patent system is shown to fail spectacularly when it comes to the human rights ideal of universal access to science. The book concludes that a fundamental restructuring of patent institutions is required, in which democratic oversight of patent policies would ensure meaningful realization of the right of everyone to access the benefits of science. Students and scholars of international law, particularly those focusing on intellectual property and human rights, will find this book to be of considerable interest. It will also be of use to practitioners in the field.

Offenheit und wissenschaftliche Werke Open Access Open Review Open Metrics Open Science Open Knowledge

Author: Ulrich Herb
Publisher: universaar
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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Open Access - so die wohl weithin akzeptierte Definition - bezeichnet die Forderung nach freiem Zugang zu wissenschaftlicher Literatur. Der Grad der Offenheit, den er verlangt, ist nur vage definiert und gemessen an anderen Open Initiatives eher gering: Die meisten Wissenschaftler dürften nicht mehr als entgeltfreie Nutzung wissenschaftlicher Texte darunter verstehen. Dennoch hielten mit Open Access Offenheit und Transparenz Einzug in der Wissenschaft. Vor allem Open-Access-Befürworter plädierten für offene Verfahren der Qualitätssicherung und die Qualitätsbewertung wissenschaftlicher Publikationen. Es ist nicht zuletzt ihnen zu verdanken, dass Open Review und Open Metrics sich im Wissenschaftsvokabular etabliert haben. Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Konzepte von Open Access, Open Review und Open Metrics und misst sie an den Offenheitsansprüchen anderer Initiativen wie der Open Knowledge Foundation oder der Open Source Bewegung.

Von Open Access zu Open Science

Author: Christian Heise
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3957961300
Format: PDF
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Mit der Digitalisierung geht der Ruf nach freiem Zugang zu wissenschaftlichen Forschungsergebnissen und einer Öffnung des Forschungsprozesses einher. Open Access und Open Science sind die Leitbegriffe dieses Transformationsprozesses, der von den einen euphorisch begrüßt und von den anderen heftig abgelehnt wird. Auf der Grundlage einer quantitativen Erhebung und eines reflexiven Experiments gibt das Buch Einblick in die aktuellen Debatten über die Chancen aber auch Hindernisse der Öffnung der Wissenschaften.

Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China

Author: U.S. National Committee for CODATA
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309102308
Format: PDF, ePub
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Preservation of and open access to digital scientific resources are essential to global research, yet the challenges in storing and maintaining access to these collections are substantial. China faces major hurdles in this regard. A workshop held in June 2004 in Beijing convened scientific information managers, digital archiving experts, national science policy and funding officials, and representatives of development organizations to explore the scientific and technical, legal and policy, institutional and economic, and management aspects of creating sustainable and accessible archives of digital health and environmental data in China.

Identifying Potential for Equitable Access to Tertiary Level Science

Author: Marissa Rollnick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048132249
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Higher education internationally is in a state of transition and transformation, leading to an increase in the level of participation, and a consequent increase in number of non traditional and underprepared students. The appearance of these students provides a particular challenge in the sciences where adequate grounding is crucial. One response to this challenge has been the provision of access, foundation or "second chance programmes" which operate on different models internationally. In South Africa, where the push for equity is strong in the wake of the apartheid era, programmes have generally been established at all tertiary institutions with some of the most successful of these programmes based at universities characterised by a high research output. Consequently in the last decade there has been a great deal of research into the effectiveness of these programmes both at a micro and macro level. Similar research in other countries exists, but is patchy and often based on small groups of students. This book provides valuable information on what research has to say about disadvantaged and under prepared science students and how they learn - what works and what does not work. It provides an examination of issues related to the programmes, their structure, student selection and adjustment. Issues such the learning of these students, their communicative ability and laboratory work come under the spotlight. Although examining the issue internationally, the book draws heavily on lessons from South Africa where there has been considerably experience of such programmes.

Access to Scientific Research

Author: David J. Brown
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110396394
Format: PDF, ePub
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The debate about access to scientific research raises questions about the current effectiveness of scholarly communication processes. This book explores, from an independent point of view, the current state of the STM publishing market, new publishing technologies and business models as well as the information habit of researchers, the politics of research funders, and the demand for scientific research as a public good.

Von Open Access zu Open Science

Author: Christian Heise
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3957961300
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Mit der Digitalisierung geht der Ruf nach freiem Zugang zu wissenschaftlichen Forschungsergebnissen und einer Öffnung des Forschungsprozesses einher. Open Access und Open Science sind die Leitbegriffe dieses Transformationsprozesses, der von den einen euphorisch begrüßt und von den anderen heftig abgelehnt wird. Auf der Grundlage einer quantitativen Erhebung und eines reflexiven Experiments gibt das Buch Einblick in die aktuellen Debatten über die Chancen aber auch Hindernisse der Öffnung der Wissenschaften.

Open Access

Author: Sebastian Krujatz
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161519987
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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English summary: The concept of open access to scientific information presents a new challenge not only for publishers of scientific works. How can copyright protection for scientific publications be justified in the age of the internet? Against this backdrop, Sebastian Krujatz studies the economic significance of copyright on scientific publications. German description: Die Popularitat der Idee vom kostenlosen und freien Zugang zu wissenschaftlichen Informationen bringt nicht nur das traditionelle System wissenschaftlichen Publizierens in Fachzeitschriften in Bedrangnis. Open Access lasst sich auch kaum mit den traditionellen Rechtfertigungsansatzen zum urheberrechtlichen Schutz vereinbaren. Es verzichtet bewusst auf Teile der durch das Urheberrecht gewahrten und der verwertungsrechtlichen Kontrolle dienenden Verbietungsrechte. Sebastian Krujatz untersucht Herkunft sowie Inhalt der Open Access-Idee und geht der Frage nach, welche okonomische Bedeutung das Urheberrecht fur die wissenschaftliche Informationsversorgung hat. Daruber hinaus setzt er sich kritisch mit jungsten Reformvorschlagen auseinander, welche zum Ziel haben, das Open Access-Prinzip im Urheberrecht zu verankern.