Author: Howard Padwa
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598842293
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Presents alphabetically-arranged entries covering major figures, organizations, events, and United States government policies covering a variety of addictive substances and addictive behaviors.

Alcohol and Drugs in North America A Historical Encyclopedia 2 volumes

Author: David M. Fahey
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598844792
Format: PDF, Docs
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Alcohol and drugs play a significant role in society, regardless of socioeconomic class. This encyclopedia looks at the history of all drugs in North America, including alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and even chocolate and caffeinated drinks.

The A Z Encyclopedia of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Author: Thomas Nordegren
Publisher: Universal-Publishers
ISBN: 9781581124040
Format: PDF
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With more than 30.000 entries The A-Z Enczclopedia on Alcohol and Substance Abuse is the most complete and comprehensive reference book in the field of Substance Abuse. A useful handbbok and working tool for drug abuse professionals. The Encyclopedia is produced in close co-operation with the ICAA, International Council on Alcohol and Addictions, since its inception in 1907 the world's leading professional non-governmental organisation working with drug-abuse related issues.

Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080914551
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists

Encyclopedia of Drugs Alcohol Addictive Behavior

Author: Henry R. Kranzler
Publisher: MacMillan
ISBN: 9780028661148
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Explores the social, medical, legal and political issues related to drugs and alcohol and associated behaviors. Includes emerging topics and developments in the many fields of addiction studies.--Résumé de l'éditeur.

The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs

Author: Richard Lawrence Miller
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313318078
Format: PDF
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Draws together information from a variety of sources to list and describe more than 130 addictive drugs, including both natural substances and pharmaceutical products.

Drugs in American Society An Encyclopedia of History Politics Culture and the Law 3 volumes

Author: Nancy E. Marion
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610695968
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Containing more than 450 entries, this easy-to-read encyclopedia provides concise information about the history of and recent trends in drug use and drug abuse in the United States—a societal problem with an estimated cost of $559 billion a year. • Contains more than 450 detailed entries on topics ranging from drugs themselves—such as alcohol, codeine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines—to key individuals like Harry Anslinger to organizations such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Covers the latest developments in U.S. policies and public attitudes toward drugs and drug use • Provides citations with each entry to guide users to other valuable research resources • Features carefully selected primary documents—including excerpts from important laws, policies, and campaigns—that have shaped American drug policy over the decades

Theory of Addiction

Author: Robert West
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118484916
Format: PDF, ePub
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The word ‘addiction’ these days is used to refer toa chronic condition where there is an unhealthily powerful motivation to engage in a particularbehaviour. This can be driven by many different factors – physiological, psychological,environmental and social. If we say that it is all about X, we miss V, W, Y and Z. So, some people thinkaddicts are using drugs to escape from unhappy lives, feelings of anxiety and so on; many are. Somepeople think drugs become addictive because they alter the brain chemistry to create powerfulurges; that is often true. Others think that drug taking is about seeking after pleasure;often it is. Some take the view that addiction is a choice – addicts weigh up the pros and cons ofdoing what they do and decide the former outweigh the latter. Yet others believe that addictssuffer from poor impulse control; that is often true… And so it goes on. When you look at the evidence, you see that all these positionscapture important aspects of the problem – but they are not complete explanations.Neuroscience can help us delve more deeply into some of these explanations, while the behavioural andsocial sciences are better at exploring others. We need a model that puts all this together in away that can help us decide what to do in different cases. Should we prescribe a drug, give theperson some ‘tender loving care’, put them in prison or what? Theory of Addictionprovides this synthesis. The first edition was well received: ‘Throughout the book the reader is exposed to a vastnumber of useful observations...The theoretical aims are timely, refreshing, ambitious and above allchallenging. It opens up a new way of looking at addiction and has the potential to move the fieldof addiction a considerable leap forward. Thus we wholeheartedly would like to recommend thebook for students as well as scholars. Read and learn!’ Nordic Studies on Alcoholand Drugs ‘The book provides a comprehensive review of existingtheories - over 30 in all - and this synthesis of theories constitutes an important contribution in andof itself... West is to be commended for his synthesis of addiction theories that spanneurobiology, psychology and social science and for his insights into what remainsunexplained.’ Addiction This new edition of Theory of Addiction builds on the first,including additional theories in the field, a more developed specification of PRIME theory andanalysis of the expanding evidence base. With this important new information, Theory of Addiction willcontinue to be essential reading for all those working in addiction, from student to experiencedpractitioner – as urged above, Read and learn!

Encyclopedia Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine Springer Verlag 2006

Author: Detlev Ganten - Klaus Ruckpaul
Publisher: Bukupedia
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The development of molecular medicine is closely linked with the rapidly growing knowledge in molecular biology, molecular genetics and genome research. Research findings in these fields have led to a shift in therapeutic targets. Whilst until recently only gene products such as enzymes and cell receptors represented targets of diagnostic processes, today the information carriers DNA and RNA themselves are evolving into target molecules, or medicinal drugs. Alongside researching into interactive processes on a cellular level – drawn from the biochemical advances made in the past century – mutation and disorders of mechanisms of gene expression are becoming the object of clinical research and of application in diagnosis and therapy. Hence, genomics and proteomics are developing into new fields of research, and their results are substantially influencing the future orientation of the fundamentals for diagnosis and therapy. These new research fields including molecular biology have generated a huge amount of new terms, abbreviations (acronyms) which need explanation. Therefore these encyclopedic references are aimed at making all those acquainted with selected terms most frequently used in genomics and proteomics in molecular medicine who are not directly involved in those termini by their research. The theoretical background of molecular medicine is based on the assumption that one or more molecular and/or genetic causes (e.g. changes caused by point mutation, deletions, shift in the reading frame etc.) underlie the outbreak of all diseases. Inversely, however, this does not necessarily imply that every mutated gene leads to a disorder in the sense of genetic determinism. There are forms of mutation that result in a transformed gene product without triggering any disease. For an illness to take shape many other factors besides a changed gene play a role, such as the endogenous disposition (e.g. inherent damage caused by previous illnesses) and exogenous factors (of environmental nature, strain through incompatibility of medication, drinking and smoking etc.). Genomics and proteomics are evolving into key technologies of advances in molecular medicine. The transfer of molecular biological knowledge into therapeutic treatment is still at the initial stage. So far, results in gene therapy have fallen short of high-flying expectations. Instead, diagnostic methods based on molecular biology have found their way into medical practice. Molecular medicine is scientifically based both on classical medicine, which is characterized by a phenotypical description of symptoms, and on the specific genotypical characterization of methods employed in molecular biology and genetic engineering. For the first time, this enabled a systematic analysis of the molecular causes of illnesses in a precise and rapid manner hitherto unattained. Molecular biological methods such as high-throughput techniques based on biochips are already being applied in various medical fields, and have significantly improved diagnosis, for instance in the prediction of risk estimation in certain illnesses, or with regard to sensitivity and specificity of treatment. This widens diagnostic scope in areas such as hereditary diseases of monogenetic origin, which until now could only be described phenomenologically, and enables preventive treatment and causal therapy of such diseases in the future. Evidently, even the molecular causes of uninfluenceable pleiotropic diseases are becoming increasingly tangible, moving their therapeutic treatment within reach. This has a decisive impact on medical work. Nevertheless, molecular medicine, too, will retain its basic character which is precise clinical observation and integral medical care. Without thorough medical examination and detailed phenotypical description neither phenotype-genotype association of any significance can be derived, nor can the possibilities of detailed gene standardisation be fully exploited. The conventional physical examination and the analysis of the gene profile remain of equal importance in the domains of both research as well as medical care. The spectacular publication on the human genome comprising 3.2 billion base sequences, which appeared simultaneously in the journals “Nature” (International non-commercial project, Head: Francis Collins) and “Science” (Genetic engineering company Celera Genomics, Head: Craig Venter) on the 50th anniversary of the double helix discovery by James Watson and Francis Crick in April 2003, marked a new era in biological basic research and in the knowledge of the components of human life. The successful decoding of the sequence raises the question about its function in the organism. Recent sequencing of the human genome (published in 2004; Nature 431, p.915, p.927, p.933) revealed that (with an accuracy of 99.999%) 2.85 billions of base pairs out of a total of 3.08 billions of base pairs have been determined; thus 99% of the genome which contains the genes have been identified. Consequently, the number of genes had to be corrected to 20,000-25,000 from the estimated 100,000 genes in the 90’s, and 30,000-40,000 in 2001. The genetic information for proteins comprises only 1.5% of the genome. 98.5% of the genome may be assigned to the so-called junk-DNAwith so far largely unknown functions. Such data are erroneous. As parts of the gene expression products, introns, for example, contain regulative sequences for gene expression and sequences that are responsible for correct splicing. These sequences must be allocated to a specific gene as essential constituents and can therefore affect the assessment significantly. Decoding the entire sequence of the genome is but the first step of a far more complex task: Understanding the functional significance of the sequences. So the determination of the sequences logically entails their functional deciphering as the following step. This field of research is known as “Functional genomics”. It deals with the allocation of parts of the entire sequence to defined gene structures. This also includes the attribution of intron sequences to functions within the regulation process of gene expression that are only partly understood so far, as well as the control of all subsequent steps up to the final protein synthesis. Alternative splicing is a major cause of transcriptome diversification. A single primary transcript yields different mature RNAs which lead to the production of proteins with various functions. This can be performed by alternative promoters. For 23.245 gene loci in the human genome over 43.000 transcripts are known. The alternative transcripts range from 2 to 40 (for details see Functional genomics). Comparison with analysed genomes of other organisms are extremely useful in the process of allocating sequence parts to whole gene sequences. In the meantime a number of gene sequences have been fully deciphered, as for example those of prokaryote micro-organisms such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori, and eukaryote microorganisms such as baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of polycellular organisms like the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, or those of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and of different vertebrates: e.g. man, mouse, rat and the green puffer-fish Tetraodon nigroviridis. Also the sequence of the bovine genome is available in a rough sketch with the exact decoding to be expected in 2005. These comparative studies revealed only 1183 species specific genes in the human genome. In all, about 200 genomes of various species have been sequenced and published. The human chromosomes 21, 22, 14, 7, 6, and Y have been fully analysed and the results werepublished in 2003. Recently, an academic research team decoded the base sequence of the second smallest human chromosome 22 and made it accessible to the researching public. Chromosome 22 has 33 million base pairs with 545 genes. Defects on this chromosome are likely to be the cause of diseases such as schizophrenia, leukemia, immune deficiencies, bone cancer and brain tumours. Similarly, a German-Japanese research team succeeded in completely decoding the smallest carrier of genetic information in humans (chromosome 21) with 225 genes, some of which play a role in diseases like Alzheimer, ALS (amyotrope lateral sclerosis), myoclonic epilepsy, innate deafness, and Down’s syndrome. Two further chromosomes whose anomalies cause diseases are chromosomes 5 and 6. Chromosome 6 represents the largest human chromosome with 166.880 million base pairs. It has 1557 functional genes for, inter alia, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), hereditary haemochromatosis with multi-organ dysfunction, juvenileonset form of Parkinson’s disease, and gene abnormalities are implicated as a contributory cause of schizophrenia, epilepsy, cancer and heart disease. Chromosome 5 has 177.7 million base pairs with 923 protein coding genes including for instance those for protocadherine and the interleukine gene families. In some regions deletion can generate disorders including spinal muscular dystrophy. After enormous 12 years lasting efforts, recently (2005), the sequence of the human X-chromosome (the determining chromosome for women: XX = female, XY = male) was completely deciphered. It comprises 1098 native genes as compared with only 78 genes of the male Y-chromosome. It is of interest that about 10% of the X-chromosome play an important role in man and do not have any function in women. The X-chromosome contains only 4% of all human genes but is linked with every 10th hereditary monogenetic disease. Recently, American scientists succeeded in introducing a human gene associated with the generation of Parkinson’s disease into the genome of Drosophila, which produced impaired balance and other typical symptoms of nervous disease similar to those of people suffering from Parkinson’s. This example demonstrates the immense significance of model organisms within the framework of functional genomics in the quest of grasping the human genome in its entirety. So far a functional role could be allocated to specific gene products of about 5,000 genes, accounting for about 20% of the estimated total of 20,000 to 25,000 genes and about 3% of the total stock of human DNA. Thus a large number of genes still needs to be similarly allocated, and their molecular structures to be determined. This is the basic content of proteomics which in analogy to genomics has two complimentary objectives: the functional analysis and localization of gene products and the comprehension of their molecular structure. As in the quest of the genome sequence which united scientists of six different nations to cooperate in a joint project, once again in 2001 a team of international researchers founded the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) to investigate into the significance of the enzymes coded by the genes. Proteome stands for the entire protein in a cell. In view of the magnitude of the task it seems quite plausible that the main project was split into 5 individual sub-projects: Human Plasma Proteome Project (HPPP), Sweden, USA; Human Liver Proteome Project (HLPP), Canada, China, France; Proteomics Standard Initiative (PSI), all countries; Human Brain Proteome Project (HBPP), Germany; International Mouse and Rat Proteome Project (MRPP) Canada, Germany. All projects aim at decoding the functional network of proteins in the human organism, at the characterization and localization of proteins in normal and diseased humans and those of model organisms, and at disseminating knowledge and respective technologies so as to find clues for the treatment of diseases. The second objective of proteomics is to determine the structure of gene products, a field that is primarily a part of basic research. Any overview of the latest developments in molecular medicine in this encyclopedia would be incomplete if it were restricted to clinical findings alone. The fundamental principles of molecular medicine are essentially based on the knowledge of cellular and molecular biological processes which are introduced into clinical practice through application in diagnosis. Moreover, the application of the whole range of genetic engineering tools resulted in radical changes in biotechnology and medical drug research. The application of genetic engineering in the pharmaceutical industry has led to a notable rationalization of production processes. In some cases the application of the processes made production of certain substances available that had so far been inaccessible for medical treatment. This marked the onset of the therapeutic use of medical drugs which could previously only be produced in chemical synthetic processes, rendering them unsuitable for large scale production. The forthcoming gain in knowledge in functional genomics and proteomics with regard to very complex processes of growth, cell division and differentiation, and their respective mechanisms of regulation (such as first, second and third messenger, transcription factors and the corresponding cis-elements on the promoters) also pave the way for new strategies in the development of medical drugs. Transforming these scientific results into useful medical drugs requires the knowledge of the structure of molecules, which is necessary for understanding the functional interaction of nucleic acids, proteins and ligands on a molecular level. This is made possible by ascertaining the molecular structures through X-ray radiation, synchrotrone radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance by super-conducting high performance magnets (up to 900 MHz) or other spectroscopic methods. All these processes complement each other in terms of applicability and significance of the evidence yielded. Another possibility of structure determination is the application of theoretical methods for predictive structure assessment of potential drugs. In this way pharmacological effects can be estimated. These techniques utilize highly sophisticated electronic simulation methods. When linking methods of the combination theory with the knowledge of the topography of bonding points, structure based drug design becomes feasible. To date (i.e. in 2003) biotechnology and genetical engineering have brought forth approximately 10,800 products world-wide. Of these about 15% have been commercialized, a further 15-20% are in the licensing phase or are on the verge of coming on the market, 30% are in the clinical test phase (Phase III) and the remaining 40% are in the clinical study phase (Phase I and II). The decoding of the human genome and its functional analysis through genomics and proteomics will further enhance this process as a multitude of further molecule structures isbiotechnological methods that made the production of certain therapeutic drugs possible as for example in the case of human insulin, erythropoetin, coagulation factor VIII, and interferon, resulting in their widespread therapeutic application. Until now, however, only a few drugs have been developed with the help of structure based drug design. Among these are an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease 1 and an inhibitor substance of neuroaminidase of the influenza virus 2. These findings form the fundamental principles of molecular medicine. They enable rationally developed drugs to influence new target structures such as gene regulators (transcription factors), or the gene itself to become the object of therapeutic manipulation, for instance by functioning as a substance-producing drug. We would like to point out that although substantial efforts were made to compose factually correct and well understandable presentations, there may be places where a definition is incomplete or a phrase in an essay is flawed. All contributors to this encyclopedia will be extremely happy to receive corrections or revised passages for inclusion in future editions of the “Encyclopedic Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine”. This encyclopedia endeavours to accompany current developments and convey the present level in knowledge on molecular causes of illnesses from a practice-oriented point of view. Acknowledged experts from various specialized fields such as human genetics, molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, physics and other bioscience disciplines explain the most important terms, complementing information by topical surveys, numerous figures and tables, and keywords. It is to be hoped that this compendium may contribute to understanding the advances in molecular medicine and may find many interested readers. Berlin, 2005 DETLEV GANTEN KLAUS RUCKPAUL