Additive Combinatorics

Author: Terence Tao
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458345
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Additive combinatorics is the theory of counting additive structures in sets. This theory has seen exciting developments and dramatic changes in direction in recent years thanks to its connections with areas such as number theory, ergodic theory and graph theory. This graduate-level 2006 text will allow students and researchers easy entry into this fascinating field. Here, the authors bring together in a self-contained and systematic manner the many different tools and ideas that are used in the modern theory, presenting them in an accessible, coherent, and intuitively clear manner, and providing immediate applications to problems in additive combinatorics. The power of these tools is well demonstrated in the presentation of recent advances such as Szemerédi's theorem on arithmetic progressions, the Kakeya conjecture and Erdos distance problems, and the developing field of sum-product estimates. The text is supplemented by a large number of exercises and new results.

Higher Order Fourier Analysis

Author: Terence Tao
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821889869
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Traditional Fourier analysis, which has been remarkably effective in many contexts, uses linear phase functions to study functions. Some questions, such as problems involving arithmetic progressions, naturally lead to the use of quadratic or higher order phases. Higher order Fourier analysis is a subject that has become very active only recently. Gowers, in groundbreaking work, developed many of the basic concepts of this theory in order to give a new, quantitative proof of Szemeredi's theorem on arithmetic progressions. However, there are also precursors to this theory in Weyl's classical theory of equidistribution, as well as in Furstenberg's structural theory of dynamical systems. This book, which is the first monograph in this area, aims to cover all of these topics in a unified manner, as well as to survey some of the most recent developments, such as the application of the theory to count linear patterns in primes. The book serves as an introduction to the field, giving the beginning graduate student in the subject a high-level overview of the field. The text focuses on the simplest illustrative examples of key results, serving as a companion to the existing literature on the subject. There are numerous exercises with which to test one's knowledge.

Additive Combinatorics

Author: Bela Bajnok
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351137611
Format: PDF, Docs
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Additive Combinatorics: A Menu of Research Problems is the first book of its kind to provide readers with an opportunity to actively explore the relatively new field of additive combinatorics. The author has written the book specifically for students of any background and proficiency level, from beginners to advanced researchers. It features an extensive menu of research projects that are challenging and engaging at many different levels. The questions are new and unsolved, incrementally attainable, and designed to be approachable with various methods.

Algebraic Number Theory

Author: A. Fröhlich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521438346
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book provides a brisk, thorough treatment of the foundations of algebraic number theory on which it builds to introduce more advanced topics. Throughout, the authors emphasize the systematic development of techniques for the explicit calculation of the basic invariants such as rings of integers, class groups, and units, combining at each stage theory with explicit computations.

Ramsey Theory on the Integers

Author: Bruce M. Landman
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821898671
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ramsey theory is the study of the structure of mathematical objects that is preserved under partitions. In its full generality, Ramsey theory is quite powerful, but can quickly become complicated. By limiting the focus of this book to Ramsey theory applied to the set of integers, the authors have produced a gentle, but meaningful, introduction to an important and enticing branch of modern mathematics. Ramsey Theory on the Integers offers students a glimpse into the world of mathematical research and the opportunity for them to begin pondering unsolved problems. For this new edition, several sections have been added and others have been significantly updated. Among the newly introduced topics are: rainbow Ramsey theory, an "inequality" version of Schur's theorem, monochromatic solutions of recurrence relations, Ramsey results involving both sums and products, monochromatic sets avoiding certain differences, Ramsey properties for polynomial progressions, generalizations of the Erdős-Ginzberg-Ziv theorem, and the number of arithmetic progressions under arbitrary colorings. Many new results and proofs have been added, most of which were not known when the first edition was published. Furthermore, the book's tables, exercises, lists of open research problems, and bibliography have all been significantly updated. This innovative book also provides the first cohesive study of Ramsey theory on the integers. It contains perhaps the most substantial account of solved and unsolved problems in this blossoming subject. This breakthrough book will engage students, teachers, and researchers alike.

Additive Number Theory The Classical Bases

Author: Melvyn B. Nathanson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475738455
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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[Hilbert's] style has not the terseness of many of our modem authors in mathematics, which is based on the assumption that printer's labor and paper are costly but the reader's effort and time are not. H. Weyl [143] The purpose of this book is to describe the classical problems in additive number theory and to introduce the circle method and the sieve method, which are the basic analytical and combinatorial tools used to attack these problems. This book is intended for students who want to lel?Ill additive number theory, not for experts who already know it. For this reason, proofs include many "unnecessary" and "obvious" steps; this is by design. The archetypical theorem in additive number theory is due to Lagrange: Every nonnegative integer is the sum of four squares. In general, the set A of nonnegative integers is called an additive basis of order h if every nonnegative integer can be written as the sum of h not necessarily distinct elements of A. Lagrange 's theorem is the statement that the squares are a basis of order four. The set A is called a basis offinite order if A is a basis of order h for some positive integer h. Additive number theory is in large part the study of bases of finite order. The classical bases are the squares, cubes, and higher powers; the polygonal numbers; and the prime numbers. The classical questions associated with these bases are Waring's problem and the Goldbach conjecture.

Hilbert s Fifth Problem and Related Topics

Author: Terence Tao
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 147041564X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the fifth of his famous list of 23 problems, Hilbert asked if every topological group which was locally Euclidean was in fact a Lie group. Through the work of Gleason, Montgomery-Zippin, Yamabe, and others, this question was solved affirmatively; more generally, a satisfactory description of the (mesoscopic) structure of locally compact groups was established. Subsequently, this structure theory was used to prove Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, and more recently in the work of Hrushovski, Breuillard, Green, and the author on the structure of approximate groups. In this graduate text, all of this material is presented in a unified manner, starting with the analytic structural theory of real Lie groups and Lie algebras (emphasising the role of one-parameter groups and the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula), then presenting a proof of the Gleason-Yamabe structure theorem for locally compact groups (emphasising the role of Gleason metrics), from which the solution to Hilbert's fifth problem follows as a corollary. After reviewing some model-theoretic preliminaries (most notably the theory of ultraproducts), the combinatorial applications of the Gleason-Yamabe theorem to approximate groups and groups of polynomial growth are then given. A large number of relevant exercises and other supplementary material are also provided.

Random Fragmentation and Coagulation Processes

Author: Jean Bertoin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139459155
Format: PDF, Docs
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Fragmentation and coagulation are two natural phenomena that can be observed in many sciences and at a great variety of scales - from, for example, DNA fragmentation to formation of planets by accretion. This book, by the author of the acclaimed Lévy Processes, is the first comprehensive theoretical account of mathematical models for situations where either phenomenon occurs randomly and repeatedly as time passes. This self-contained treatment develops the models in a way that makes recent developments in the field accessible. Each chapter ends with a comments section in which important aspects not discussed in the main part of the text (often because the discussion would have been too technical and/or lengthy) are addressed and precise references are given. Written for readers with a solid background in probability, its careful exposition allows graduate students, as well as working mathematicians, to approach the material with confidence.

Combinatorial Number Theory and Additive Group Theory

Author: Alfred Geroldinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3764389613
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book begins with two seminars: Additive Cominatorics and non-unique factorizations; Sumsets and structure. The book then offers notes from those seminars to address the methods, techniques and problems of contemporary additive combinatorics.

Combinatorics

Author: Peter J. Cameron
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110739337X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Combinatorics is a subject of increasing importance, owing to its links with computer science, statistics and algebra. This is a textbook aimed at second-year undergraduates to beginning graduates. It stresses common techniques (such as generating functions and recursive construction) which underlie the great variety of subject matter and also stresses the fact that a constructive or algorithmic proof is more valuable than an existence proof. The book is divided into two parts, the second at a higher level and with a wider range than the first. Historical notes are included which give a wider perspective on the subject. More advanced topics are given as projects and there are a number of exercises, some with solutions given.