After Brown

Author: Charles T. Clotfelter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140084133X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The United States Supreme Court's 1954 landmark decision, Brown v. Board of Education, set into motion a process of desegregation that would eventually transform American public schools. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of how Brown's most visible effect--contact between students of different racial groups--has changed over the fifty years since the decision. Using both published and unpublished data on school enrollments from across the country, Charles Clotfelter uses measures of interracial contact, racial isolation, and segregation to chronicle the changes. He goes beyond previous studies by drawing on heretofore unanalyzed enrollment data covering the first decade after Brown, calculating segregation for metropolitan areas rather than just school districts, accounting for private schools, presenting recent information on segregation within schools, and measuring segregation in college enrollment. Two main conclusions emerge. First, interracial contact in American schools and colleges increased markedly over the period, with the most dramatic changes occurring in the previously segregated South. Second, despite this change, four main factors prevented even larger increases: white reluctance to accept racially mixed schools, the multiplicity of options for avoiding such schools, the willingness of local officials to accommodate the wishes of reluctant whites, and the eventual loss of will on the part of those who had been the strongest protagonists in the push for desegregation. Thus decreases in segregation within districts were partially offset by growing disparities between districts and by selected increases in private school enrollment.

Encyclopedia of African American Education

Author: Kofi Lomotey
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412940508
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Encyclopedia of African American Education covers educational institutions at every level, from preschool through graduate and professional training, with special attention to historically black and predominantly black colleges and universities. Other entries cover individuals, organizations, associations, and publications that have had a significant impact on African American education. The Encyclopedia also presents information on public policy affecting the education of African Americans, including both court decisions and legislation. It includes a discussion of curriculum, concepts, theories, and alternative models of education, and addresses the topics of gender and sexual orientation, religion, and the media. The Encyclopedia also includes a Reader's Guide, provided to help readers find entries on related topics. It classifies entries in sixteen categories: " Alternative Educational Models " Associations and Organizations " Biographies " Collegiate Education " Curriculum " Economics " Gender " Graduate and Professional Education " Historically Black Colleges and Universities " Legal Cases " Pre-Collegiate Education " Psychology and Human Development " Public Policy " Publications " Religious Institutions " Segregation/Desegregation. Some entries appear in more than one category. This two-volume reference work will be an invaluable resource not only for educators and students but for all readers who seek an understanding of African American education both historically and in the 21st century.

The Color of Mind

Author: Derrick Darby
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022652535X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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American students vary in educational achievement, but white students in general typically have better test scores and grades than black students. Why is this the case, and what can school leaders do about it? In The Color of Mind, Derrick Darby and John L. Rury answer these pressing questions and show that we cannot make further progress in closing the achievement gap until we understand its racist origins. Telling the story of what they call the Color of Mind—the idea that there are racial differences in intelligence, character, and behavior—they show how philosophers, such as David Hume and Immanuel Kant, and American statesman Thomas Jefferson, contributed to the construction of this pernicious idea, how it influenced the nature of schooling and student achievement, and how voices of dissent such as Frederick Douglass, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, and W. E. B. Du Bois debunked the Color of Mind and worked to undo its adverse impacts. Rejecting the view that racial differences in educational achievement are a product of innate or cultural differences, Darby and Rury uncover the historical interplay between ideas about race and American schooling, to show clearly that the racial achievement gap has been socially and institutionally constructed. School leaders striving to bring justice and dignity to American schools today must work to root out the systemic manifestations of these ideas within schools, while still doing what they can to mitigate the negative effects of poverty, segregation, inequality, and other external factors that adversely affect student achievement. While we cannot expect schools alone to solve these vexing social problems, we must demand that they address the dignitary injustices associated with how we track, discipline, and deal with special education that reinforce long-standing racist ideas. That is the only way to expel the Color of Mind from schools, close the racial achievement gap, and afford all children the dignity they deserve.

Constructing Social Research

Author: Charles C. Ragin
Publisher: Pine Forge Press
ISBN: 1412960185
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method, Second Edition is a concise, innovative text designed for Research Methods courses in the Social Sciences. The main goal of this Sociology for a New Century Series text is to show unity within the diversity of activities called social research. The first part of the book tackles questions like “What is social research?” “How does it differ from journalism, documentary film-making, or laboratory research in the natural sciences?” and “What is the researcher’s obligation to those he or she is studying?” The book also covers the how the various goals of social researchers shape the strategies they use and the representations of social life they construct. The latter part of the book is structured around the typical emphases of each tradition: qualitative research on commonalities, comparative research on diversity, and quantitative research on relationships among variables. These are not rigid divisions and research designs often blend aspects of each tradition in creative ways. Regardless of the approach, the process of representing social life through research involves a dialogue of ideas (“theory”) and evidence (“data”). The model of social research put forth by Ragin and Amoroso is not as restrictive as the scientific method and encompasses social research ranging from research examining the complexities of everyday life to research investigating the power of transnational processes.

Complex Justice

Author: Joshua M. Dunn
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469606607
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In 1987 Judge Russell Clark mandated tax increases to help pay for improvements to the Kansas City, Missouri, School District in an effort to lure white students and quality teachers back to the inner-city district. Yet even after increasing employee salaries and constructing elaborate facilities at a cost of more than $2 billion, the district remained overwhelmingly segregated and student achievement remained far below national averages. Just eight years later the U.S. Supreme Court began reversing these initiatives, signifying a major retreat from Brown v. Board of Education. In Kansas City, African American families opposed to the district court's efforts organized a takeover of the school board and requested that the court case be closed. Joshua Dunn argues that Judge Clark's ruling was not the result of tyrannical "judicial activism" but was rather the logical outcome of previous contradictory Supreme Court doctrines. High Court decisions, Dunn explains, necessarily limit the policy choices available to lower court judges, introducing complications the Supreme Court would not anticipate. He demonstrates that the Kansas City case is a model lesson for the types of problems that develop for lower courts in any area in which the Supreme Court attempts to create significant change. Dunn's exploration of this landmark case deepens our understanding of when courts can and cannot successfully create and manage public policy.

Encyclopedia of Race Ethnicity and Society

Author: Richard T. Schaefer
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412926947
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area

Teacherpreneurs

Author: Barnett Berry
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118540042
Format: PDF, Docs
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We need a bold new brand of teacher leadership that will createopportunities for teachers to practice, share, and grow theirknowledge and expertise. This book is about "teacherpreneurs"—highly accomplishedclassroom teachers who blur the lines of distinction between thosewho teach in schools and those who lead them. Theseteacherpreneurs embody the concept that teachers canteach as well as lead the transformation of teaching andlearning. It’s about empowering expert teachers who can buoythe image of teaching and enforce standards among their ranks whileall along making sure that their colleagues as well as educationpolicymakers and the public know what works best for students. The book follows a small group of teacherpreneurs in their firstyear. We join their journey toward becoming teacherleaders whose work is not defined by administrative fiat, but bytheir knowledge of students and drive to influence policies thatallow them and their colleagues to teach more effectively. Theauthors trace the teacherpreneurs' steps—and theirown—in the effort to determine what it means to define andexecute the concept of "teacherpreneurism" in the face of toughdemands and resistant organizational structures.

Big Time Sports in American Universities

Author: Charles T. Clotfelter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108421121
Format: PDF
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This book expands on the argument that spectator sports, despite their problems, have become a central function of American universities.

Five Miles Away A World Apart

Author: James E. Ryan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199798923
Format: PDF
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How is it that, half a century after Brown v. Board of Education, educational opportunities remain so unequal for black and white students, not to mention poor and wealthy ones? In his important new book, Five Miles Away, A World Apart, James E. Ryan answers this question by tracing the fortunes of two schools in Richmond, Virginia--one in the city and the other in the suburbs. Ryan shows how court rulings in the 1970s, limiting the scope of desegregation, laid the groundwork for the sharp disparities between urban and suburban public schools that persist to this day. The Supreme Court, in accord with the wishes of the Nixon administration, allowed the suburbs to lock nonresidents out of their school systems. City schools, whose student bodies were becoming increasingly poor and black, simply received more funding, a measure that has proven largely ineffective, while the independence (and superiority) of suburban schools remained sacrosanct. Weaving together court opinions, social science research, and compelling interviews with students, teachers, and principals, Ryan explains why all the major education reforms since the 1970s--including school finance litigation, school choice, and the No Child Left Behind Act--have failed to bridge the gap between urban and suburban schools and have unintentionally entrenched segregation by race and class. As long as that segregation continues, Ryan forcefully argues, so too will educational inequality. Ryan closes by suggesting innovative ways to promote school integration, which would take advantage of unprecedented demographic shifts and an embrace of diversity among young adults. Exhaustively researched and elegantly written by one of the nation's leading education law scholars, Five Miles Away, A World Apart ties together, like no other book, a half-century's worth of education law and politics into a coherent, if disturbing, whole. It will be of interest to anyone who has ever wondered why our schools are so unequal and whether there is anything to be done about it.

Race Law and the Desegregation of Public Schools

Author: Peter William Moran
Publisher: Lfb Scholarly Pub Llc
ISBN: 9781593320393
Format: PDF, ePub
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Moran examines Kansas City, Missouri, as a case study of school desegregation during the period 1949 to 1999. He argues that school desegregation is best understood as a process that influenced, and was influenced by, a multitude of factors. In this context, developments in Kansas City and elsewhere are presented as products of the interplay between evolving legal standards, shifting demographic patterns, the changing social, political, and economic climate of the city, fiscal considerations, and the actions and motivations of public policy makers. The successes and failures of desegregation are considered in light of each of these interconnected variables, drawing implications for the nation as a whole.