Agriculture Poverty and Reform in Iran RLE Iran D

Author: Mohammad Javad Amad
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136820825
Format: PDF, Kindle
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As in many developing countries, the prospects for land reform in Iran seemed promising. It was expected to improve rural poverty and stimulate agricultural development by replacing the traditional landlord-peasant system with more peasant-biased, modern farming. This book assesses the economic consequences of land reform, focusing particularly on its effect on the living standards of the rural poor. Amid describes a ‘biomodal’ system of large and small farms that emerged after the reform. Large farms, with government support, modernized and grew more profitable cash crops, whereas small farms found difficulty in obtaining credit and continued to rely on traditional techniques and staple food crops. Land reform was not, the author argues a success for the majority of the Iranian rural population who experienced virtually no improvement in living standards and a growth of rural inequality as a result.

Iran s Political Demographic and Economic Vulnerabilities

Author: Keith Crane
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833043048
Format: PDF, ePub
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Iran is one of the most important U.S. foreign policy concerns but is extraordinarily difficult to engage. The authors assess current political, ethnic, demographic, and economic trends and vulnerabilities in Iran, then offer recommendations on U.S. policies that might foster the trends beneficial to U.S. interests. However, if these trends do take root in Iran, seeing them come to fruition will take time and, therefore, patience.

Women and Politics in Iran

Author: Hamideh Sedghi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139463721
Format: PDF
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Why were urban women veiled in the early 1900s, unveiled from 1936 to 1979, and reveiled after the 1979 revolution? This question forms the basis of Hamideh Sedghi's original and unprecedented contribution to politics and Middle Eastern studies. Using primary and secondary sources, Sedghi offers new knowledge on women's agency in relation to state power. In this rigorous analysis she places contention over women at the centre of the political struggle between secular and religious forces and demonstrates that control over women's identities, sexuality, and labor has been central to the consolidation of state power. Sedghi links politics and culture with economics to present an integrated analysis of the private and public lives of different classes of women and their modes of resistance to state power.

Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India

Author: Knut A. Jacobsen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317403584
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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India is the second largest country in the world with regard to population, the world’s largest democracy and by far the largest country in South Asia, and one of the most diverse and pluralistic nations in the world in terms of official languages, cultures, religions and social identities. Indians have for centuries exchanged ideas with other cultures globally and some traditions have been transformed in those transnational and transcultural encounters and become successful innovations with an extraordinary global popularity. India is an emerging global power in terms of economy, but in spite of India’s impressive economic growth over the last decades, some of the most serious problems of Indian society such as poverty, repression of women, inequality both in terms of living conditions and of opportunities such as access to education, employment, and the economic resources of the state persist and do not seem to go away. This Handbook contains chapters by the field’s foremost scholars dealing with fundamental issues in India’s current cultural and social transformation and concentrates on India as it emerged after the economic reforms and the new economic policy of the 1980s and 1990s and as it develops in the twenty-first century. Following an introduction by the editor, the book is divided into five parts: Part I: Foundation Part II: India and the world Part III: Society, class, caste and gender Part IV: Religion and diversity Part V: Cultural change and innovations Exploring the cultural changes and innovations relating a number of contexts in contemporary India, this Handbook is essential reading for students and scholars interested in Indian and South Asian culture, politics and society.

English in Post Revolutionary Iran

Author: Maryam Borjian
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1847699081
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book unravels the story of English, the language of "the enemies", in post-revolutionary Iran. Situating English within the nation's broader social, political, economic and historical contexts, the book explores the politics, causes, and agents of the two diverging trends of indigenization/localization and internationalization/Anglo-Americanization in English education in Iran over the past three decades.

Understanding Iran

Author: Jerrold D. Green
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 083304558X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"Over the years, there have been numerous efforts to locate the roots of the Islamic Republic's intentions and motivations in the distinctiveness of its political culture and history. A rich and ancient nation, Iran has always beguiled outsiders. This complexity, combined with America's lack of access to Iran since 1979, has produced a peculiar view of the Islamic Republic, a view defined by mystique and a superficial reading that places too much emphasis on Iran's 'abnormal' and 'exceptional' characteristics. This document is a short, accessible guide intended to help U.S. policymakers understand the Islamic Republic. It offers a set of short analytic observations about the processes, institutions, networks, and actors that define Iran's politics, strategy, economic policy, and diplomacy. From these, it sets out an argument for appreciating the challenges and fundamentals of negotiating with Iran."--Summary, p. ix.

Trade Investment and Economic Development in Asia

Author: Debashis Chakraborty
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317207815
Format: PDF, Docs
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In an era of globalization, trade in goods and cross-border services and capital flows play a key role in determining the economic growth path of countries. Over the last two decades, countries have embarked on several alternate tracks to liberalize and deepen their linkage with the world economy. The growing trade-investment nexus and the emerging developments lead to deeper international production networks, rise in cross-border trade in services and in regional trade agreements and so on. The debate of whether it is possible to empirically validate the potential benefits of this deepening trade-investment linkage is ongoing. The evidence in literature is, however, ambiguous. This book contributes to the literature by looking at Asian economies and at the EU, Maghreb countries and Pacific Island economics. It examines the issues under four broad areas, namely: (1) trade: theoretical and policy issues, (2) factor flows: impact on trade and welfare, (3) impact of trade and factor flows on environment and (4) institutions, international trade and policy issues.

Slaves of the Shah

Author: Sussan Babaie
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857716867
Format: PDF
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The Savafid dynasty represented, in political, cultural and economic terms the pinnacle of Iran’s power and influence in its early modern history. The evidence for this -the creation of a nation state, military expansion and success, economic dynamism and the exquisite art and architecture of the period - is well-known. What is less understood is the extent to which the Safavid success depended on - and was a product of - a class of elite originating from outside Iran: the slaves of Caucasian descent and the Armenian merchants of New Julfa in the city of Isfahan. It was these groups, bolstered by Shah Abbas the Great (1589 – 1629) and his successors, who became the pillars of Safavid political, economic and cultural life. This book describes how these elites, following their conversion to Islam, helped to form a new language of Savafid absolutism. It documents their contributions, financed by the Armenian trade in Safavid silk, to the transformation of Isfahan’s urban, artistic and social landscape. The insights provided here into the multi-faceted roles of the Safavid royal household offer an original and comprehensive study of slave elites in imperial systems common to the political economies of the Malmuk, Ottoman and Safavid courts as well as contributing to the earlier Abbasid, Ghaznavid and Saljuq eras. As such this book makes an original and important contribution to our understanding of the history of the Islamic world from the 16th to the 18th centuries and will prove invaluable for students and scholars of the period.

Dialogue Among Civilizations

Author:
Publisher: Unesco
ISBN: 9789231038143
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book captures the essence of what was an important starting point for the year for Dialogue among Civilizations (2001). Leaders from all continents assembled in September 2000 to share their views on the eve of the historic U.N. Millennium Summit. The political perspectives advanced then were complemented by contributions from personalities drawn from literature, the media, academia, diplomacy and international organizations. 'Dialogue among civilizations' is an essential stage in the founding of a form of human development both sustainable and equitable, humanizing globalization and laying the basis of an enduring peace.