AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems Models and Ethical Challenges for Legal Systems Legal Language and Legal Ontologies Argumentation and Software Agents

Author: Monica Palmirani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642357318
Format: PDF, ePub
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The inspiring idea of this workshop series, Artificial Intelligence Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL), is to develop models of legal knowledge concerning organization, structure, and content in order to promote mutual understanding and communication between different systems and cultures. Complexity and complex systems describe recent developments in AI and law, legal theory, argumentation, the Semantic Web, and multi-agent systems. Multisystem and multilingual ontologies provide an important opportunity to integrate different trends of research in AI and law, including comparative legal studies. Complexity theory, graph theory, game theory, and any other contributions from the mathematical disciplines can help both to formalize the dynamics of legal systems and to capture relations among norms. Cognitive science can help the modeling of legal ontology by taking into account not only the formal features of law but also social behaviour, psychology, and cultural factors. This book is thus meant to support scholars in different areas of science in sharing knowledge and methodological approaches. This volume collects the contributions to the workshop's third edition, which took place as part of the 25th IVR congress of Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy, held in Frankfurt, Germany, in August 2011. This volume comprises six main parts devoted to the each of the six topics addressed in the workshop, namely: models for the legal system ethics and the regulation of ICT, legal knowledge management, legal information for open access, software agent systems in the legal domain, as well as legal language and legal ontology.

AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems

Author: Pompeu Casanovas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642165230
Format: PDF, Docs
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The inspiring idea of this workshop series, Artificial Intelligence Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems (AICOL), is to develop models of legal knowledge, concerning organization, structure and content, in order to promote mutual understanding and communication between different systems and cultures. Complexity and complex systems describe recent developments in AI and law, legal theory, argumentation, the Semantic Web, and multi-agent systems. The aim of the AICOL workshops is thus to offer effective support for the exchange of knowledge and methodological approaches between scholars from different scientific fields, by highlighting their similarities and differences. The comparison of multiple formal approaches to the law (such as logical models, cognitive theories, argumentation frameworks, graph theory, game theory), as well as opposite perspectives like internal and the external viewpoints, this volume stresses possible convergences, as, for instance, are possible in the realms of conceptual structures, argumentation schemes, emergent behaviors, learning evolution, adaptation, and simulation. This volume assembles 15 thoroughly refereed and revised papers, selected from two workshops organized at the XXIV World Congress of Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR, Beijing, China, September 15-20, 2009) and at JURIX-09 (December 16-19, 2009, Rotterdam). The papers are organized in topical sections on language and complex systems in law, ontologies and the representation of legal knowledge, argumentation and logics, as well as dialogue and legal multimedia.

The Laws of Robots

Author: Ugo Pagallo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400765649
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book explores how the design, construction, and use of robotics technology may affect today’s legal systems and, more particularly, matters of responsibility and agency in criminal law, contractual obligations, and torts. By distinguishing between the behaviour of robots as tools of human interaction, and robots as proper agents in the legal arena, jurists will have to address a new generation of “hard cases.” General disagreement may concern immunity in criminal law (e.g., the employment of robot soldiers in battle), personal accountability for certain robots in contracts (e.g., robo-traders), much as clauses of strict liability and negligence-based responsibility in extra-contractual obligations (e.g., service robots in tort law). Since robots are here to stay, the aim of the law should be to wisely govern our mutual relationships.

Gesammelte Schriften in deutscher Sprache

Author: Friedrich August Hayek
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161480621
Format: PDF, ePub
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Der vorliegende Band ist Teil der "Gesammelten Schriften von Friedrich A. von Hayek in deutscher Sprache". Jeder Band enthalt ein bibliographisches Nachwort, in dem fur jeden Aufsatz die dem Abdruck zugrundeliegende Fassung, die eventuelle Vorfassung, sowie deren Editions- und Ubersetzungsgeschichte dargestellt werden. Jeder Band enthalt auch ein Namen- und Sachregister.Die Aufsatze in diesem Band behandeln wesentliche Probleme, die Hayek in seiner Kritik an sozialistischen Vorstellungen von Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft diskutiert hat. Die Aufsatze, die ursprunglich in den Jahren zwischen 1949 und 1976 veroffentlicht wurden, sind in drei Themengruppen eingeteilt und innerhalb der Themengruppen nach dem Jahr der Entstehung oder der Erstveroffentlichung geordnet.

Judicial Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Giovanni Sartor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401590109
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The judiciary is in the early stages of a transformation in which AI (Artificial Intelligence) technology will help to make the judicial process faster, cheaper, and more predictable without compromising the integrity of judges' discretionary reasoning. Judicial decision-making is an area of daunting complexity, where highly sophisticated legal expertise merges with cognitive and emotional competence. How can AI contribute to a process that encompasses such a wide range of knowledge, judgment, and experience? Rather than aiming at the impossible dream (or nightmare) of building an automatic judge, AI research has had two more practical goals: producing tools to support judicial activities, including programs for intelligent document assembly, case retrieval, and support for discretionary decision-making; and developing new analytical tools for understanding and modeling the judicial process, such as case-based reasoning and formal models of dialectics, argumentation, and negotiation. Judges, squeezed between tightening budgets and increasing demands for justice, are desperately trying to maintain the quality of their decision-making process while coping with time and resource limitations. Flexible AI tools for decision support may promote uniformity and efficiency in judicial practice, while supporting rational judicial discretion. Similarly, AI may promote flexibility, efficiency and accuracy in other judicial tasks, such as drafting various judicial documents. The contributions in this volume exemplify some of the directions that the AI transformation of the judiciary will take.

Legal Knowledge Representation Automatic Text Analysis in Public International and European Law

Author: Erich Schweighofer
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041111484
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume is a presentation of all methods of legal knowledge representation from the point of view of jurisprudence as well as computer science. A new method of automatic analysis of legal texts is presented in four case studies. Law is seen as an information system with legally formalised information processes. The achieved coverage of legal knowledge in information retrieval systems has to be followed by the next step: conceptual indexing and automatic analysis of texts. Existing approaches of automatic knowledge representations do not have a proper link to the legal language in information systems. The concept-based model for semi-automatic analysis of legal texts provides this necessary connection. The knowledge base of descriptors, context-sensitive rules and meta-rules formalises properly all important passages in the text corpora for automatic analysis. Statistics and self-organising maps give assistance in knowledge acquisition. The result of the analysis is organised with automatically generated hypertext links. Four case studies show the huge potential but also some drawbacks of this approach.

Law Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence

Author: Ajit Narayanan
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9781871516593
Format: PDF, Docs
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This text examines the interaction between the disciplines of law, computer science and artificial intelligence. The chapters are grouped into theory, implications and applications sections, in an attempt to identify separate, but interrelated methodological stances.

Legisprudence

Author: Luc Wintgens
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847311342
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The unifying idea behind the essays in this volume is that,although legislation and regulation are the result of a political process, legislation and regulation can be the object of theoretical study. The focus is on problems that are common to most European legal systems, and the approach involves applying to legislative problems the tools of legal theory (hence 'legisprudence'). Traditional legal theory deals predominantly with the question of the application of law by the judge. Legisprudence enlarges the field of study so as to include the creation of law by the legislator. Following this new approach a variety of new questions and problems are raised, including the validity of norms, their meaning, and the structure of the legal system, problems that are traditionally dealt with from the perspective of the judge or are taken for granted by classical legal theory. However, by shifting the attention to the legislator, the same questions arise, though traditional legal science covers many of these questions with the cloak of sovereignty. The original essays published in this volume expose and develop a range of new insights into the relationship between legislative problems and legal theory in a way which will engage and interest many legal scholars around the world.

Rechtsinformatik und Wissensrepr sentation

Author: Erich Schweighofer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783211832165
Format: PDF
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Erstmals gibt es eine umfassende Analyse aller Methoden juristischer Wissensrepräsentation aus der Sicht der Rechtswissenschaft wie der Informatik (insbes. Information Retrieval and Artificial Intelligence). Das Recht wird als Informationssystem mit rechtlich formalisierten Informationsprozessen gesehen. Für die nunmehr erforderliche begriffliche Indexierung und automatische Analyse von Rechtstexten in Information Retrieval-Systemen wird das begriffsbasierte Wissensmodell mit Einbeziehung der Rechtssprache vorgeschlagen. Die Wissensbasis enthält in formaler Form alle Textsegmente, die für eine weitere dogmatische Analyse von Bedeutung sind. Die Wissensakquisition wird mit Statistik und selbstorganisierenden Karten unterstützt, das Ergebnis der Textanalyse mit automatisch generierten Hypertextlinks präsentiert. Die vier Fallstudien im Völker- und Europarecht zeigen das große Potential dieser Methode.