American Parties in Context

Author: Robert Harmel
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135015422
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Roughly sixty-five years ago, a group of political scientists operating as the "Committee on Political Parties" of the American Political Association thought long and hard about whether the American parties were adequately serving their democracy, and made specific recommendations for improvements. Comparing the parties of this country to those of Great Britain, the Committee found the American parties to be lacking in such fundamentals as clear policy differences, strong and effective organization, and unity of purpose among each party’s representatives in public offices. Starting from that background, this book is intended to significantly enhance students‘ understanding of the American parties today by putting them in broader context. How do the twenty-first century Democrats and Republicans compare to the APSA Committee’s "responsible parties model" of the mid-twentieth? And how do the American parties compare to parties of other democracies around the world, including especially the British parties? Harmel, Giebert, and Janda answer those questions and, in the process, demonstrate that the American parties have moved significantly in the direction of the responsible parties model, but while showing little inclination for implementing the greater discipline the Committee thought essential. Already having provided as much ideological choice as the British parties, the US parties have now edged closer on the other critical requirement of legislative cohesion. The authors show that the latter has resulted "naturally" from the greater homogenization of the meaning of "Democrat" and "Republican" across the country, both within the electorate and now within Congress as well. The dramatic increase in cohesion is not the product of greater party discipline, but rather of sectoral realignments.

History of Political Parties in Twentieth century Latin America

Author: Torcuato Di Tella
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351515497
Format: PDF
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The general perception of modern Latin American political institutions emphasizes a continuing and random process of disorder and crisis, continually out of step with other regions in their progress toward democracy and prosperity. In "History of Political Parties in Twentieth-Century Latin America," Torcuato S. Di Tella demonstrates that this common view lacks context and comparative nuance, and is deeply misleading. Looking behind the scenes of modern Latin American history, he discerns its broad patterns through close analysis of actual events and comparative sociological perspectives that explain the apparent chaos of the past and point toward the more democratic polity now developing. Di Tella argues that although Latin America has peculiarities of its own, they must be understood in their contrasts - and similarities - with both the developed centers and undeveloped peripheries of the world. Latin American societies have been prone to mass rebellions from very early on, more so than in other regions of the world. He analyzes, as well, such significant exceptions to this pattern as Chile, Colombia, and, to a large extent, Brazil. Turning to the other side of the social spectrum, he shows how the underprivileged classes have tended to support strongman populist movements, which have the double character of being aggressive toward the established order, but at the same time repressive of public liberties and of more radical groups. Di Tella provides here a necessary examination of the concept of populism and divides it into several variants. Populism, he maintains, is by no means disappearing, but its variants are instead undergoing important changes with significant bearing on the region's near-term future. "History of Political Parties in Twentieth-Century Latin America" is rich in historical description, but also in its broad review of social structures and of the strengths and weaknesses of political institutions. Choice commented that "this heavily documented volume with an extensive bibliography would prove valuable to researchers and advanced students of Latin America.

Advances in Comparative Historical Analysis

Author: James Mahoney
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107110025
Format: PDF
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Situates comparative-historical analysis within contemporary debates in political science and explores the latest theoretical and conceptual advances.

Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Fernando Rosenblatt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190870052
Format: PDF, ePub
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Even in Latin America's most socially and economically stable countries, new parties emerge constantly, old parties collapse, and party systems across the region are notoriously fragile. Still, there are also successful stories. There have been a number of parties in Colombia, Chile, and Venezuela that used to be able to operate well beyond electoral cycles and preserve a significant presence in their respective countries for decades. How do such political parties remain vibrant organizations over time? In Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America, Fernando Rosenblatt sheds new light on how party vibrancy is maintained and reproduced over time in three of the region's more stable countries-Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay. Referencing these three "consolidated" democracies with records of good governance, Rosenblatt identifies the complex interaction between four causal factors that can explain party vibrancy: Purpose, Trauma, Channels of Ambition, and Moderate Exit Barriers. "Purpose" activates prospective loyalty among party members. "Trauma" refers to a shared traumatic past which engenders retrospective loyalty. "Channels of Ambition" are established routes by which individuals can pursue political careers. Finally, "Moderate Exit Barriers" are rules that set costs of defection at reasonable levels. When these factors work together throughout a party's "Golden Age," they can demonstrate a link between party organizations´ stability and the quality of democratic representation across Latin America. As Rosenblatt finds, when parties remain vibrant organizations, democracies are better able to withstand challenges long-term. A unique qualitative study, Party Vibrancy and Democracy in Latin America demonstrates how the vitality of political parties can directly and indirectly impact how effective they are as intermediaries for their citizens not just in Latin America, but around the world.

Political Marketing

Author: Darren G. Lilleker
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719068713
Format: PDF, Docs
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Political marketing is becoming a global phenomenon as parties try to copy the market-oriented approach employed by Tony Blair. This work considers the problems with the market-oriented approach, examining the difficulties faced by New Labour in government.

Class and Conservative Parties

Author: Edward L. Gibson
Format: PDF
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What accounted for the rise of conservative parties in many democratizing Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s? Does this augur well for the stable representation of the propertied and socially privileged in political parties? In Class and Conservative Parties Edward Gibson examines these questions in light of Latin America's long legacies of authoritarianism and democratic instability. While previous studies have stressed ideological criteria as defining characteristics of conservative parties, Gibson defines them as parties that draw their core constituencies from the upper strata of society. He thus provides a new approach to the comparative study of conservative parties and offers theoretical insights into the dynamics of conservative electoral coalition-building. Using Argentine politics as his main case, Gibson addresses the causes of that country's troubled patterns of conservative party development through several historical periods. He also traces the evolving alliance between conservatives and the armed forces, which culminated in the failed 1976-1983 military government. His analysis of conservative efforts to organize democratically provides insights into the continuing problems of conservative party development in modern Argentina. Placing Argentina in a larger comparative context. Gibson also examines the determinants of conservative party development in Latin America. He gives special attention to the interaction between core constituencies, party leaders, and the state and offers a thoughtful look forward at conservatism's future in the region. Class and Conservative Parties will be of interest to scholars and students of comparative politics, especially thoseinterested in party development and democratic consolidation.

The Resurgence of the Latin American Left

Author: Steven Levitsky
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421401614
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Featuring a new typology of Left parties in Latin America, an original framework for identifying and categorizing variation among these governments, and contributions from prominent and influential scholars of Latin American politics, this historical-institutional approach to understanding the region’s left turn—and variation within it—is the most comprehensive explanation to date on the topic.

Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties

Author: Moisei Ostrogorski
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351522930
Format: PDF, ePub
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Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties, originally published in 1902, represented the first serious attempt to analyze the consequences of democratic suffrage by a comparative analysis of political systems. As such, Ostrogorski's two-volume study of the party system in Britain and the United States exerted profound influence on the subsequent writings of Max Weber and Robert Michels. A descriptive analyst of the party system in these two countries, Ostrogorski developed concepts and methods that an-ticipated by nearly half a century those later used by American and British political scientists. The core of Ostrogorski's analysis is a detailed history of the rise of and changes within the party system in Britain and the United States, the first nations to introduce mass suffrage. While the emphasis of Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties is on the similar trends in the political parties of both countries, Ostrogorski also showed concern with the sources of differences between them. Seeking to explain these variations, he suggested a number of fundamental hypotheses about these two societies that con-tinue to be of relevance today. Lipset's substantial introduction places Os-trogorski's work within its historical context and assesses Ostrogorski's im-pact and influence on both his contemporaries and on later political scien-tists.