An American Genocide

Author: Benjamin Madley
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300182171
Format: PDF, Docs
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Between 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian population plunged from perhaps 150,000 to 30,000. Benjamin Madley is the first historian to uncover the full extent of the slaughter, the involvement of state and federal officials, the taxpayer dollars that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended. This deeply researched book is a comprehensive and chilling history of an American genocide. Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide before explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence against California Indians. He narrates the rise of a state-sanctioned killing machine and the broad societal, judicial, and political support for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer state militiamen, U.S. Army soldiers, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others. The state and federal governments spent at least $1,700,000 on campaigns against California Indians. Besides evaluating government officials’ culpability, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted genocide and how other possible genocides within and beyond the Americas might be investigated using the methods presented in this groundbreaking book.

An American Genocide

Author: Benjamin Madley
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300181361
Format: PDF, Docs
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The first full account of the government-sanctioned genocide of California Indians under United States rule

The Destruction of California Indians

Author: Robert Fleming Heizer
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 9780803272620
Format: PDF, Mobi
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California is a contentious arena for the study of the Native American past. Some critics say genocide characterized the early conduct of Indian affairs in the state; others say humanitarian concerns. Robert F. Heizer, in the former camp, has compiled a damning collection of contemporaneous accounts that will provoke students of California history to look deeply into the state's record of race relations and to question bland generalizations about the adventuresome days of the Gold Rush. Robert F. Heizer's many works include the classic The Other Californians: Prejudice and Discrimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (1971), written with Alan Almquist. In his introduction, Albert L. Hurtado sets the documents in historical context and considers Heizer's influence on scholarship as well as the advances made since his death. A professor of history at Arizona State University, Hurtado is the author of Indian Survival on the California Frontier.

Exterminate Them

Author: Clifford E. Trafzer
Publisher: MSU Press
ISBN: 0870139614
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Popular media depict miners as a rough-and-tumble lot who diligently worked the placers along scenic rushing rivers while living in roaring mining camps in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Trafzer and Hyer destroy this mythic image by offering a collection of original newspaper articles that describe in detail the murder, rape, and enslavement perpetrated by those who participated in the infamous gold rush. "It is a mercy to the Red Devils," wrote an editor of the Chico Courier, "to exterminate them." Newspaper accounts of the era depict both the barbarity and the nobility in human nature, but while some protested the inhumane treatment of Native Americans, they were not able to end the violence. Native Americans fought back, resisting the invasion, but they could not stop the tide of white miners and settlers. They became "strangers in a stolen land."

Settler Colonialism in the Twentieth Century

Author: Caroline Elkins
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136077464
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Postcolonial states and metropolitan societies still grapple today with the divisive and difficult legacies unleashed by settler colonialism. Whether they were settled for trade or geopolitical reasons, these settler communities had in common their shaping of landholding, laws, and race relations in colonies throughout the world. By looking at the detail of settlements in the twentieth century--from European colonial projects in Africa and expansionist efforts by the Japanese in Korea and Manchuria, to the Germans in Poland and the historical trajectories of Israel/Palestine and South Africa--and analyzing the dynamics set in motion by these settlers, the contributors to this volume establish points of comparison to offer a new framework for understanding the character and fate of twentieth-century empires.

Indian Survival on the California Frontier

Author: Albert L. Hurtado
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300047981
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Looks at the Indians who survived the invasion of white settlers during the nineteenth century and integrated their lives into white society while managing to maintain their own culture

Making a Non White America

Author: Allison Varzally
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520253450
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"The stories in Varzally's book are great, and they drive the analysis, which really does tell us a lot about how people form interracial relationships and how interethnic coalitions–indeed, how races–are formed in the everyday reality of people's experiences." –Paul Spickard, author of Almost All Aliens: Immigration, Race, and Colonialism in American History and Identity "Most important among its contributions, this book points towards a broad reconceptualization of America's past that incorporates the various cultural communities of the United States, not as subordinate actors in an Anglo-centric narrative, but as equal participants in our nation's history." –Mark Wild, author of Street Meeting: Multiethnic Neighborhoods in Early Twentieth Century Los Angeles

Murder State

Author: Brendan C. Lindsay
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 080324021X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Euro-American citizenry of California carried out mass genocide against the Native population of their state, using the processes and mechanisms of democracy to secure land and resources for themselves and their private interests. The murder, rape, and enslavement of thousands of Native people were legitimized by notions of democracy—in this case mob rule—through a discreetly organized and brutally effective series of petitions, referenda, town hall meetings, and votes at every level of California government. Murder State is a comprehensive examination of these events and their early legacy. Preconceptions about Native Americans as shaped by the popular press and by immigrants’ experiences on the overland trail to California were used to further justify the elimination of Native people in the newcomers’ quest for land. The allegedly “violent nature” of Native people was often merely their reaction to the atrocities committed against them as they were driven from their ancestral lands and alienated from their traditional resources. In this narrative history employing numerous primary sources and the latest interdisciplinary scholarship on genocide, Brendan C. Lindsay examines the darker side of California history, one that is rarely studied in detail, and the motives of both Native Americans and Euro-Americans at the time. Murder State calls attention to the misuse of democracy to justify and commit genocide.