Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry Pulping and Papermaking

Author: Eero Sjöström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662038986
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In its broadest sense, and according to the traditional conception, wood chemistry is a comprehensive discipline, ranging from fundamental studies to practical applications. The manifold constituents, located in different morphological regions in the wood, results in an extreme complexity of wood chemistry. Ever more sophisticated endeavors needing fundamental studies and advanced analytical methods are necessary in order to delve deeper into various problems in pulping and papermaking. Gradually, new, improved ana lytical methods, originally developed for research purposes, are currently replacing many of the old "routine" methods in practical applications. Because of the expanse of the subject, an attempt to write a book of this size about analytical methods seems, perhaps, too ambitious. Of course, a whole book series of several volumes would be necessary to cover this topic completely. However, there is undoubtedly a need for a more condensed presentation which does not go into experimental details, but is limited to the basic principles of the analytical methods and illustrates their applica tions. The emphasis is on more advanced and potential methods, and partic ularly on those based on different types of spectroscopy and chromatography.

Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry Pulping and Papermaking

Author: Eero Sjöström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540631026
Format: PDF
Download Now
In its broadest sense, and according to the traditional conception, wood chemistry is a comprehensive discipline, ranging from fundamental studies to practical applications. The manifold constituents, located in different morphological regions in the wood, results in an extreme complexity of wood chemistry. Ever more sophisticated endeavors needing fundamental studies and advanced analytical methods are necessary in order to delve deeper into various problems in pulping and papermaking. Gradually, new, improved ana lytical methods, originally developed for research purposes, are currently replacing many of the old "routine" methods in practical applications. Because of the expanse of the subject, an attempt to write a book of this size about analytical methods seems, perhaps, too ambitious. Of course, a whole book series of several volumes would be necessary to cover this topic completely. However, there is undoubtedly a need for a more condensed presentation which does not go into experimental details, but is limited to the basic principles of the analytical methods and illustrates their applica tions. The emphasis is on more advanced and potential methods, and partic ularly on those based on different types of spectroscopy and chromatography.

Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking

Author: Christopher J. Biermann
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008053368X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In its Second Edition, Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking is a comprehensive reference for industry and academia. The book offers a concise yet thorough introduction to the process of papermaking from the production of wood chips to the final testing and use of the paper product. The author has updated the extensive bibliography, providing the reader with easy access to the pulp and paper literature. The book emphasizes principles and concepts behind papermaking, detailing both the physical and chemical processes. A comprehensive introduction to the physical and chemical processes in pulping and papermaking Contains an extensive annotated bibliography Includes 12 pages of color plates

Principles of Instrumental Analysis

Author: Douglas A. Skoog
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1337468037
Format: PDF, Kindle
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PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS is the standard for courses on the principles and applications of modern analytical instruments. In the 7th edition, authors Skoog, Holler, and Crouch infuse their popular text with updated techniques and several new Instrumental Analysis in Action case studies. Updated material enhances the book's proven approach, which places an emphasis on the fundamental principles of operation for each type of instrument, its optimal area of application, its sensitivity, its precision, and its limitations. The text also introduces students to elementary analog and digital electronics, computers, and the treatment of analytical data. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Biermann s Handbook of Pulp and Paper

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128142391
Format: PDF, Docs
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Biermann's Handbook of Pulp and Paper: Paper and Board Making, Third Edition provides a thorough introduction to paper and board making, providing paper technologists recent information. The book emphasizes principles and concepts behind papermaking, detailing both the physical and chemical processes. It has been updated, revised and extended. Several new chapters have been added. Papermaking chemistry has found an adequate scope covering this important area by basics and practical application. Scientific and technical advances in refining, including the latest developments have been presented. The process of stock preparation describes the unit processes. An exhaustive overview of Chemical additives in Pulp and Paper Industry is included. Paper and pulp processing and additive chemicals are an integral part of the total papermaking process from pulp slurry, through sheet formation, to effluent disposal. Water circuits with loop designs and circuit closure are presented. The chapter on paper and board manufacture covers the different sections in the paper machine and also fabrics, rolls and roll covers, and describes the different types of machines producing the various paper and board grades. Coating is dealt with in a separate chapter covering color formulation and preparation and also coating application. Paper finishing gives an insight into what happens at roll slitting and handling. The chapter on environmental impact includes waste water treatment and handling, air emissions, utilization and solid residue generation and mitigation . The major paper and board grades and their properties, are described. Biotechnological methods for paper processing are also presented. This handbook is essential reading for Applied Chemists, Foresters, Chemical Engineers, Wood Scientists, and Pulp and Paper technologist/ Engineers, and anyone else interested or involved in the pulp and paper industry Provides comprehensive coverage on all aspects of papermaking Covers the latest science and technology in papermaking Includes traditional and biotechnological methods, a unique feature of this book Presents the environmental impact of papermaking industries Sets itself apart as a valuable reference that every pulp and papermaker/engineer/chemist will find extremely useful

Dyes and Pigments

Author: Ahmet Gürses
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319338927
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this book the authors go back to basics to describe the structural differences between dyes and pigments, their mechanisms of action, properties and applications. They set the scene by explaining the reasons behind these differences and show how dyes are predominately organic compounds that dissolve or react with substrates, whereas pigments are (predominantly) finely ground inorganic substances that are insoluble and therefore have a different mode of coloring. They also describe the role of functional groups and their effect on dyeing ability, contrasting this with the way in which pigments cause surface reflection (or light absorption) depending on their chemical and crystalline structure and relative particle size. The book explores the environmental impact of dyes in a section that covers the physical, chemical, toxicological, and ecological properties of dyes and how these are used to assess their effect on the environment and to estimate whether a given product presents a potential hazard. Lastly, it assesses how, in addition to their traditional uses in the textile, leather, paper, paint and varnish industries, dyes and pigments are indispensable in other fields such as microelectronics, medical diagnostics, and in information recording techniques.

Chemistry of Pulp and Paper Making

Author: Edwin Sutermeister
Publisher: Girvin Press
ISBN: 1443732079
Format: PDF
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PREFACE: The preparation of this book was undertaken because it was felt that there was need of a work dealing primarily with the chemical aspects of the pulp and paper industry and embodying under one cover the results of recent investigations along this line. The endeavor has been to include all details which the chemist should have to enable him to grasp the methods of manufacture, but it is not intended to be a treatise on paper making in all its mechanical phases, and in fact the mechanical features of the industry are discussed only in so far as they are necessary for a satisfactory understanding of the chemistry involved. It has been written chiefly with the idea of helping the young technical man, whether chemist or chemical engineer, and it has therefore been assumed that the reader has a fair knowledge of the elements of chemistry. At the same time it has been attempted to write as simply and plainly as possible and it is believed that any one connected with the pulp and paper industry will find it helpful and suggestive. The subject matter has been collected from personal notes and experiences during the authors twenty years service as chemist in the industry, as well as from a careful review of the literature relating to the subject. The latter is often contra- dictory in the extreme and in certain cases it has proved almost impossible to reconcile conflicting statements. In such cases both sides of the argument have been presented as fairly as possible. It is peculiar to the industry that there are usually a large number of variable factors which influence any one operation, and since it is practically impossible to control all of these variables it necessarily follows that results in different mills will not be in harmony. For this reason it is expected that the observant reader will find statements to which he will take exceptions, but such differences of opinion are often desirable since they indicate lines of investigation which will lead to a better understanding of many things present obscure. which are at Regarding the methods of analysis and testing which are given it may be said that the attempt has been made to include all which are necessary for routine work in controlling opera- tions. There are many occasional analyses which it is necessary to make during special investigations, but it is impractical to include all of these and for such methods reference must be made to the numerous standard text-books of analytical procedure. L. Merrill Acknowledgment is made of the assistance of Mr. J. on the subject of Straw and also of that of my associates at the mills of S. D. Warren Company, whose encouragement has helped to overcome many difficulties. I am also indebted to the publishers ofVan Nostrands Chem- ical Annual for a number of the tables which will be found in the appendix. Contents include: CHAPTER I PAGE CELLULOSE Physiological and Physical. Composition and Constitution. Cellulose and Water. Solvents. Cellulose and Salts. Decomposition by Acids, Alkalis, Oxidants, Ferments and Heat. Compounds, Nitrates, Gun- Cotton, Nitrites, Acetates, Sulphuric Esters. Mixed Esters, Benzoates, Formates, Alkali-Cellulose. Sulpho-Carbonates. Groups of Celluloses. Compound Celluloses. Methods of Determination. CHAPTER II FIBROUS RAW MATERIALS t . . . 34 The Vegetable Cell. Seed Hairs. Bast Fibres. Fibres from Whole Stems. Woods. Length of Fibres. Densities and Composition of Woods. Bark and Knots. Decay. Woods used in Pulp Making. Bulk of Raw Materials. CHAPTER III RAGS, ESPARTO, STRAW, BAMBOO 68 Grades of Rags. Dusting. Boiling. Boilers. Losses. Esparto. Cleaning. Boilers. Cooking. Bleaching. Alkali Recovery. Straw. Com- position. Cooking with Lime. Soda Cooks. Bamboo. Sources. Analyses. Cooking...

Handbook of Practical X Ray Fluorescence Analysis

Author: Burkhard Beckhoff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540367225
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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X-Ray fluorescence analysis is an established technique for non-destructive elemental materials analysis. This book gives a user-oriented practical guidance to the application of this method. The book gives a survey of the theoretical fundamentals, analytical instrumentation, software for data processing, various excitation regimes including gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative analysis, applications in routine and micro analysis, mineralogy, biology, medicine, criminal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water analysis. This book is the bible of X-Ray fluorescence analysis. It gives the basic knowledge on this technique, information on analytical equipment and guides the reader to the various applications. It appeals to researchers, analytically active engineers and advanced students.