Ancient West Asian Civilization

Author: Akira Tsuneki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811005540
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book explores aspects of the ancient civilization in West Asia, which has had a great impact on modern human society—agriculture, metallurgy, cities, writing, regional states, and monotheism, all of which appeared first in West Asia during the tenth to first millennia BC.The editors specifically use the term "West Asia" since the "Middle East" is seen as an Eurocentric term. By using this term, the book hopes to mitigate potential bias (i.e. historical and Western) by using a pure geographical term. However, the "West Asia" region is identical to that of the narrower "Middle East," which encompasses modern Iran and Turkey from east to west and Turkey and the Arabian Peninsula from north to south.This volume assembles research from different disciplines, such as the natural sciences, archaeology and philology/linguistics, in order to tackle the question of which circumstances and processes these significant cultural phenomena occurred in West Asia. Scrutinizing subjects such as the relations between climate, geology and human activities, the origins of wheat cultivation and animal domestication, the development of metallurgy, the birth of urbanization and writing, ancient religious traditions, as well as the treatment of cultural heritage, the book undertakes a comprehensive analysis of West Asian Civilization that provided the common background to cultures in various areas of the globe, including Europe and Asia.These contributions will attempt to demonstrate a fresh vision which emphasizes the common cultural origin between Europe and West Asia, standing in opposition to the global antagonism symbolized by the theory of "Clash of Civilizations."

The Construction of the Assyrian Empire

Author: Shigeo Yamada
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004117723
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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While systematically analyzing all accounts of the western campaigns of Shalmaneser III of Assyria, Shigeo Yamada not only discusses the historiographical problems encountered, but in his philological analysis offers new results, and an original historical reconstruction.

The Pre Islamic Middle East

Author: Martin Sicker
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275968908
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Examines the political history of the Middle East from antiquity to the Arab conquest.

Cultures and Societies in the Middle Euphrates and Habur Areas in the Second Millennium BC

Author: Daisuke Shibata
Publisher: Harrassowitz
ISBN: 9783447105835
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The excavations of various archaeological sites along the Habur and the Middle Euphrates region since the 1970s have supplied us with a great amount of inscriptional sources that shed new light on the scribal culture, society, and history of those areas and their relations to their surroundings. Particularly in order to reach a comprehensive understanding of the scribal education and traditions in the region, the conference "Cultures and Societies in the Middle Euphrates and Habur Areas in the Second Millennium BC: Scribal Education and Scribal Traditions" was held in Tsukuba, Japan, in December 2013. This volume includes ten papers by assyriologists who participated in the conference. Next to various analyses of local and regional scribal traditions from fresh philological and archaeological viewpoints, new texts are published and studied. Dealing with the scribal education and traditions examined in the written sources from Mari, Terqa, Tabatum/Tabetu (Tell Taban), Emar, Ugarit, Hattusa, and southern Babylonian cities, the volume makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the aspects of transmission, diffusion, and interaction of local and regional scribal cultures in Mesopotamia, Syria, and Anatolia during the second Millennium BC.

Engineering

Author: Unesco
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9231041568
Format: PDF
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This report reviews engineering's importance to human, economic, social and cultural development and in addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals. Engineering tends to be viewed as a national issue, but engineering knowledge, companies, conferences and journals, all demonstrate that it is as international as science. The report reviews the role of engineering in development, and covers issues including poverty reduction, sustainable development, climate change mitigation and adaptation. It presents the various fields of engineering around the world and is intended to identify issues and challenges facing engineering, promote better understanding of engineering and its role, and highlight ways of making engineering more attractive to young people, especially women.--Publisher's description.

People on the Move in a Changing Climate

Author: Etienne Piguet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400769857
Format: PDF, ePub
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Policymakers around the world are increasingly concerned about the likely impact of climate change and environmental degradation on the movement of people. This book takes a hard look at the existing evidence available to policymakers in different regions of the world. How much do we really know about the impact of environmental change on migration? How will different regions of the world be affected in the future? Is there evidence to show that migration can help countries adapt to environmental change ? What types of research have been conducted, how reliable is the evidence? These are some of the questions considered in this book, which presents, for the first time, a synthesis of relevant research findings for each major region of the world. Written by regional experts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the key findings of existing studies on the linkages between environmental change and the movement of people. More and more reports on migration and the environment are being published, but the information is often scattered between countries and within regions, and it is not always clear how much of this information is based on solid research. This book brings this evidence together for the first time, highlighting innovative studies and research gaps. In doing this, the book seeks to help decision-makers draw lessons from existing studies and to identify priorities for further research.

Feast Famine or Fighting

Author: Richard J. Chacon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319484028
Format: PDF
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The advent of social complexity has been a longstanding debate among social scientists. Existing theories and approaches involving the origins of social complexity include environmental circumscription, population growth, technology transfers, prestige-based and interpersonal-group competition, organized conflict, perennial wartime leadership, wealth finance, opportunistic leadership, climatological change, transport and trade monopolies, resource circumscription, surplus and redistribution, ideological imperialism, and the consideration of individual agency. However, recent approaches such as the inclusion of bioarchaeological perspectives, prospection methods, systematically-investigated archaeological sites along with emerging technologies are necessarily transforming our understanding of socio-cultural evolutionary processes. In short, many pre-existing ways of explaining the origins and development of social complexity are being reassessed. Ultimately, the contributors to this edited volume challenge the status quo regarding how and why social complexity arose by providing revolutionary new understandings of social inequality and socio-political evolution.

The Artist Enterprise in the Digital Age

Author: Xavier Greffe
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431559698
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is a monograph of cultural economics of a new concept, artist–enterprises. It explores various dimensions that artists embody, i.e., aesthetic, critical, messianic, and economic ones, and screens the multiple challenges faced by the artist–enterprises in terms of pricing, funding, and networking in the Digital Age. It shows how these artist–enterprises are at the core of the contemporary creative industries. Even when they are on their own, artists have to demonstrate or manage a variety of skills, sign contracts both in the early and later stages of their activities, and also maintain relationships and networks that enable them to attain their artistic and economic goals. They are no longer simply entrepreneurs managing their own skills but are the enterprises themselves. The artist–enterprises thus find themselves at the confluence of two dynamics of production—artistic and economic: artistic because they invent new expressions and meanings; and economic because these expressions must be supported by monetary values on the market. The artistic dynamic is part of a long process of artistic enhancement and only an artist can say whether it has reached the point of presentation or equilibrium. The economic dynamic is dependent on the constant endorsement of artists' works by the market to ensure their survival as artist–enterprises. The tension created by this disparity is further aggravated by another tension: the need to overcome a number of risks so that artist–enterprises can progress. This book will be of special interest to artists, managers, students, professionals, and researchers in the fields of the arts, creativity, economics, and development. The author is Emeritus Professor at the University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne.

Age Structured Population Dynamics in Demography and Epidemiology

Author: Hisashi Inaba
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981100188X
Format: PDF
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This book is the first one in which basic demographic models are rigorously formulated by using modern age-structured population dynamics, extended to study real-world population problems. Age structure is a crucial factor in understanding population phenomena, and the essential ideas in demography and epidemiology cannot be understood without mathematical formulation; therefore, this book gives readers a robust mathematical introduction to human population studies. In the first part of the volume, classical demographic models such as the stable population model and its linear extensions, density-dependent nonlinear models, and pair-formation models are formulated by the McKendrick partial differential equation and are analyzed from a dynamical system point of view. In the second part, mathematical models for infectious diseases spreading at the population level are examined by using nonlinear differential equations and a renewal equation. Since an epidemic can be seen as a nonlinear renewal process of an infected population, this book will provide a natural unification point of view for demography and epidemiology. The well-known epidemic threshold principle is formulated by the basic reproduction number, which is also a most important key index in demography. The author develops a universal theory of the basic reproduction number in heterogeneous environments. By introducing the host age structure, epidemic models are developed into more realistic demographic formulations, which are essentially needed to attack urgent epidemiological control problems in the real world.

Archaeology of the Communist Era

Author: Ludomir R. Lozny
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319451081
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book contributes to better recognition and comprehension of the interconnection between archaeology and political pressure, especially imposed by the totalitarian communist regimes. It explains why, under such political conditions, some archaeological reasoning and practices were resilient, while new ideas leisurely penetrated the local scenes. It attempts to critically evaluate the political context and its impact on archaeology during the communist era world wide and contributes to better perception of the relationship between science and politics in general. This book analyzes the pressures inflicted on archaeologists by the overwhelmingly potent political environment, which stimulates archaeological thought and controls the conditions for professional engagement. Included are discussions about the perception of archaeology and its findings by the public. ​