Application of Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Environmental Engineering

Author: Janusz Ozonek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0415616263
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Containing the state-of-the-art in hydrodynamic cavitation, the book consists of two parts. The first part presents the physical basis of cavitation and a systematic classification of various kinds of cavitation and their formation sources. Special attention is paid to a group of factors that promote cavitation formation in natural liquids. A general model of cavitation is formulated as well as a sub-model describing dynamics of the formation, development and collapse of cavitation bubbles. The sub-model also includes effects of cavitation bubble occurrence on the liquid in the direct vicinity of bubbles. Finally, part one also includes a thermodynamic hydrocavitation model of water containing cavitation nuclei (natural waters). The second part deals with the application of hydrodynamic cavitation effects to advanced oxidation of substances that pollute the natural environment. Results of laboratory experiments on the application of cavitation effects to decompose selected organic compounds which hardly undergo biodegradation are presented, as well as a concept of the cavitation phenomenon application on an industrial scale. Application of Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Environmental Engineering will be useful to professionals dealing with the design and practical application of hydrocavitation reactors, and to academics in environmental engineering.

Environmental Engineering III

Author: Lucjan Pawlowski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203846664
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Environmental engineering has a leading role in the elimination of ecological threats, and can deal with a wide range of technical and technological problems due to its interdisciplinary character. It uses the knowledge of the basic sciences – biology, chemistry, biochemistry and physics – to neutralize pollution in all the elements of the environment, i.e. the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere. Mainly, environmental engineering deals with the design and maintenance of systems of water supply, sewage disposal, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings. In brief, it deals with securing technically, the conditions which create a safe environment for mankind to live in. The three main goals of Environmental Engineering III are to assess the state of scientific research in various areas of environmental engineering; to evaluate organizational, technical, and technological progress in contributing to ecological security; and to determine the place of environmental engineering in sustainable development, taking into account current political and economic conditions. The contributions are divided into eight sections: General problems Air pollution control Indoor air pollution control Neutralization of sewage sludge and wastewater Neutralization of solid wastes and sludges Remediation of polluted sites Water quality and supply Energy saving and recovery Environmental Engineering III contains 88 selected and peer reviewed papers from 327 contributions presented during the 3rd Congress of Environmental Engineering, and is a valuable sources of information for academics and engineers in environmental engineering.

The Mind of an Engineer

Author: Purnendu Ghosh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811001197
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) promotes the endeavour of the practitioners of engineering and technology and related sciences to solve the problems of national importance. The book is an initiative of the INAE and a reflection of the experiences of some of the Fellows of the INAE in the fields of science, technology and engineering. The book is about the reminiscences, eureka moments, inspirations, challenges and opportunities in the journey the professionals took toward self-realisation and the goals they achieved. The book contains 58 articles on diverse topics that truly reflects the way the meaningful mind of an engineer works.

Cavitation Reaction Engineering

Author: Y.T. Shah
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461547873
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The literature on cavitation chemistry is ripe with conjectures, possibilities, heuris tic arguments, and intelligent guesses. The chemical effects of cavitation have been explained by means of many theories, consisting of empirical constants, adjustable parameters, and the like. The chemists working with cavitation chemistry agree that the phenomenon is very complex and system specific. Mathematicians and physi cists have offered partial solutions to the observed phenomena on the basis of cavitation parameters, whereas chemists have attempted explanations based on the modes of reaction and the detection of intermediate chemical species. Nevertheless, no one has been able to formulate a unified theme, however crude, for its effects on the basis of the known parameters, such as cavitation and transient chemistry involving extremely high temperatures of nanosecond durations. When one surveys the literature on cavitation-assisted reactions, it is clear that the approach so far has been "Edisonian" in nature. While a large number of reactions have showed either enhanced yields or reduced reaction times, many reactions have remained unaffected in the presence of cavitation. The success or failure of cavitation reactions ultimately depends on the collapse of the cavity. Cavitation chemistry is based on the principles of the formation of small transient cavities, their growth and implosion, which produce chemical reactions caused by the generation of extreme pressures and temperatures and a high degree of micro turbulence.

Cavitation in Non Newtonian Fluids

Author: Emil Brujan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642153433
Format: PDF
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Non-Newtonian properties on bubble dynamics and cavitation are fundamentally different from those of Newtonian fluids. The most significant effect arises from the dramatic increase in viscosity of polymer solutions in an extensional flow, such as that generated about a spherical bubble during its growth or collapse phase. In addition, many biological fluids, such as blood, synovial fluid, and saliva, have non-Newtonian properties and can display significant viscoelastic behaviour. This monograph elucidates general aspects of bubble dynamics and cavitation in non-Newtonian fluids and applies them to the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering. In addition it presents many examples from the process industries. The field is strongly interdisciplinary and the numerous disciplines involve have and will continue to overlook and reinvent each others’ work. This book helps researchers to think intuitively about the diverse physics of these systems, to attempt to bridge the various communities involved, and to convey the interest, elegance, and variety of physical phenomena that manifest themselves on the micrometer and microsecond scales.

Industrial Wastewater Treatment Recycling and Reuse

Author: Vivek V. Ranade
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0444634037
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Recycling and Reuse is an accessible reference to assist you when handling wastewater treatment and recycling. It features an instructive compilation of methodologies, including advanced physico-chemical methods and biological methods of treatment. It focuses on recent industry practices and preferences, along with newer methodologies for energy generation through waste. The book is based on a workshop run by the Indus MAGIC program of CSIR, India. It covers advanced processes in industrial wastewater treatment, applications, and feasibility analysis, and explores the process intensification approach as well as implications for industrial applications. Techno-economic feasibility evaluation is addressed, along with a comparison of different approaches illustrated by specific case studies. Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Recycling and Reuse introduces you to the subject with specific reference to problems currently being experienced in different industry sectors, including the petroleum industry, the fine chemical industry, and the specialty chemicals manufacturing sector. Provides practical solutions for the treatment and recycling of industrial wastewater via case studies Instructive articles from expert authors give a concise overview of different physico-chemical and biological methods of treatment, cost-to-benefit analysis, and process comparison Supplies you with the relevant information to make quick process decisions

Cavitation

Author: Sivakumar Manickam
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814411558
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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As nanomaterials and their end products occupy the pinnacle position of consumer markets, it becomes vital to analyze their generation processes. One of the green chemistry principles underlines the need for unusual energy sources to generate them. Utilizing the extreme energy from the collapse of cavitation bubbles, generated by either ultrasound or hydrodynamic forces, for the generation of nanomaterials is a merit to consider in this "Green Chemical Processing Era." A wide range of nanomaterials have been developed in the past decade using cavitation or coupling cavitation with other techniques such as microwave, photochemistry, and electrochemistry, resulting in nanomaterials with unique morphologies, reduced size, narrow size distribution, and innumerous advantages. While a few currently available books deal with the fundamental aspects of cavitation and sonochemistry, this book is devoted specifically to the technologically important nanomaterials obtained by cavitation.

Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Volume 2

Author: A. K. Haghi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351800183
Format: PDF
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This book covers many important aspects of applied chemistry and chemical engineering, focusing on three main aspects: principles, methodology and evaluation methods. It presents a selection of chapters on recent developments of theoretical, mathematical, and computational conceptions, as well as chapters on modeling and simulation of specific research themes covering applied chemistry and chemical engineering. This book attempts to bridge the gap between classical analysis and modern applications. Covering a selection of topics within the field of applied chemistry and chemical engineering, the book is divided into several parts: polymer chemistry and technology bioorganic and biological chemistry nanoscale technology selected topics This book is the second of the two-volume series Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. The first volume is Volume 1: Mathematical and Analytical Techniques.

Hydrodynamics of Pumps

Author: Christopher E. Brennen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139497278
Format: PDF, ePub
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Hydrodynamics of Pumps is a reference for pump experts and a textbook for advanced students. It examines the fluid dynamics of liquid turbomachines, particularly pumps, focusing on special problems and design issues associated with the flow of liquid through a rotating machine. There are two characteristics of a liquid that lead to problems and cause a significantly different set of concerns than those in gas turbines. These are the potential for cavitation and the high density of liquids, which enhances the possibility of damaging, unsteady flows and forces. The book begins with an introduction to the subject, including cavitation, unsteady flows and turbomachinery, basic pump design and performance principles. Chapter topics include flow features, cavitation parameters and inception, bubble dynamics, cavitation effects on pump performance, and unsteady flows and vibration in pumps - discussed in the three final chapters. The book is richly illustrated and includes many practical examples.

Power Ultrasonics

Author: Juan A Gallego-Juárez
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782420363
Format: PDF
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The industrial interest in ultrasonic processing has revived during recent years because ultrasonic technology may represent a flexible “green alternative for more energy efficient processes. A challenge in the application of high-intensity ultrasound to industrial processing is the design and development of specific power ultrasonic systems for large scale operation. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid and multiphase media the development of a new family of power generators with extensive radiating surfaces has significantly contributed to the implementation at industrial scale of several applications in sectors such as the food industry, environment, and manufacturing. Part one covers fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids. It also discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices. Part two looks at applications of high power ultrasound in materials engineering and mechanical engineering, food processing technology, environmental monitoring and remediation and industrial and chemical processing (including pharmaceuticals), medicine and biotechnology. Covers the fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids. Discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices. Considers state-of-the-art power sonic applications across a wide range of industries.