Applications of Epidemiological Models to Public Health Policymaking

Author: Zhilan Feng
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814522368
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Mathematical models can be very helpful to understand the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. This book presents examples of epidemiological models and modeling tools that can assist policymakers to assess and evaluate disease control strategies. Contents:Mathematical Modeling in Epidemiology:Epidemic ModelsEndemic ModelsApplications to Public Health Policymaking:Applications of Models to Evaluations of Disease Control StrategiesDevelopment of Interactive Tools to Assist Public Health Policymaking Readership: Researchers in mathematical biology, mathematical modeling, infectious diseases and complex systems. Keywords:Epidemiological Model;Population Dynamics;Disease Control StrategyKey Features:Development of modeling tools that are user-friendly to policymakersConsideration of heterogeneities that are not analyzed in detail previouslyConnection of model analyses to real disease data to improve understanding

The Basic Approach to Age Structured Population Dynamics

Author: Mimmo Iannelli
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402411461
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides an introduction to age-structured population modeling which emphasizes the connection between mathematical theory and underlying biological assumptions. Through the rigorous development of the linear theory and the nonlinear theory alongside numerics, the authors explore classical equations that describe the dynamics of certain ecological systems. Modeling aspects are discussed to show how relevant problems in the fields of demography, ecology and epidemiology can be formulated and treated within the theory. In particular, the book presents extensions of age-structured modeling to the spread of diseases and epidemics while also addressing the issue of regularity of solutions, the asymptotic behavior of solutions, and numerical approximation. With sections on transmission models, non-autonomous models and global dynamics, this book fills a gap in the literature on theoretical population dynamics. The Basic Approach to Age-Structured Population Dynamics will appeal to graduate students and researchers in mathematical biology, epidemiology and demography who are interested in the systematic presentation of relevant models and mathematical methods.

Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases

Author: Committee on Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and Response to Emerging Diseases of Zoonotic Origin
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309137349
Format: PDF, Mobi
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H1N1 ("swine flu"), SARS, mad cow disease, and HIV/AIDS are a few examples of zoonotic diseases-diseases transmitted between humans and animals. Zoonotic diseases are a growing concern given multiple factors: their often novel and unpredictable nature, their ability to emerge anywhere and spread rapidly around the globe, and their major economic toll on several disparate industries. Infectious disease surveillance systems are used to detect this threat to human and animal health. By systematically collecting data on the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals, investigators can track the spread of disease and provide an early warning to human and animal health officials, nationally and internationally, for follow-up and response. Unfortunately, and for many reasons, current disease surveillance has been ineffective or untimely in alerting officials to emerging zoonotic diseases. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases assesses some of the disease surveillance systems around the world, and recommends ways to improve early detection and response. The book presents solutions for improved coordination between human and animal health sectors, and among governments and international organizations. Parties seeking to improve the detection and response to zoonotic diseases--including U.S. government and international health policy makers, researchers, epidemiologists, human health clinicians, and veterinarians--can use this book to help curtail the threat zoonotic diseases pose to economies, societies, and health.

Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

Author: Center for Education
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309261619
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation of what it means to use science in public policy. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy identifies the gaps in our understanding and develops a framework for a new field of research to fill those gaps. For social scientists in a number of specialized fields, whether established scholars or Ph.D. students, Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy shows how to bring their expertise to bear on the study of using science to inform public policy. More generally, this report will be of special interest to scientists who want to see their research used in policy making, offering guidance on what is required beyond producing quality research, beyond translating results into more understandable terms, and beyond brokering the results through intermediaries, such as think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups. For administrators and faculty in public policy programs and schools, Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy identifies critical elements of instruction that will better equip graduates to promote the use of science in policy making.

Why Religion and Spirituality Matter for Public Health

Author: Doug Oman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319739662
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume reviews the exploding religion/spirituality (R/S) and health literature from a population health perspective. It emphasizes the distinctive Public Health concern for promoting health and preventing disease in societies, nations, and communities, as well as individuals. Part I offers a rigorous review of mainstream biomedical and social scientific theory and evidence on R/S-health relations. Addressing key gaps in previous literature, it reviews evidence from a population health viewpoint, surveying pertinent findings and theories from the perspective of Public Health subfields that range from Environmental Health Sciences to Public Health Nutrition to Health Policy & Management and Public Health Education. In Part II, practitioners describe in detail how attending to R/S factors enhances the work of clinicians and community health practitioners. R/S provides an additional set of concepts and tools to address opportunities and challenges ranging from behavior and institutional change to education, policy, and advocacy. Part III empowers educators, analyzing pedagogical needs and offering diverse short chapters by faculty who teach R/S-health connections in many nationally top-ranked Schools of Public Health. International and global perspectives are highlighted in a concluding chapter and many places throughout the volume. This book addresses a pressing need for Public Health research, practice and teaching: A substantial evidence base now links religious and spiritual (R/S) factors to health. In the past 20 years, over 100 systematic reviews and 30 meta-analyses on R/S-health were published in refereed journals. But despite this explosion of interest, R/S factors remain neglected in Public Health teaching and research. Public Health lags behind related fields such as medicine, psychology, and nursing, where R/S factors receive more attention. This book can help Public Health catch up. It offers abundant key resources to empower public health professionals, instructors, and students to address R/S, serving at once as a course text, a field manual and a research handbook.

Drugs Advances in Research and Application 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464920923
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Drugs: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Trials. The editors have built Drugs: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Trials in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Drugs: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Chronic Pain and Exercise

Author: Linn Karlsson
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 917685518X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Chronic pain is common in western countries and entails considerable consequences for the afflicted individuals as well as for the society. Furthermore, chronic pain is complex including an advanced interplay between biological-, psychological- and social aspects. Treatment of chronic pain attempts to decrease pain intensity and increase physical-, psychological- and social functioning. However, the treatment of chronic pain is still not optimized. Different types of physical activity and exercise (PA&E) are commonly applied as non-pharmacological treatment strategies for chronic pain, but the most efficient type and dose of PA&E are unclear. In addition, adherence to prescribed PA&E is often troublesome, which further complicates the application of PA&E as treatment for chronic pain. The aim of this thesis is to increase the knowledge about PA&E as treatment for chronic pain regarding pain intensity, biochemical substances, adherence and attitudes. The findings of this thesis were that a long-term, home-based PA&E intervention comprising strength exercises as well as stretch exercises decreased pain intensity and increased function in women with chronic neck- and shoulder pain. Using microdialysis technique, differences in pain modulatory biochemical substances were found, before the intervention, in painful trapezius muscle compared to pain-free trapezius muscle. In addition, alterations in pain modulatory substances in painful trapezius muscle after the intervention were found, which possibly could imply peripheral physiological effects of PA&E. Furthermore, psychological factors could be associated to the effects of and adherence to the PA&E intervention. An intention to be physically active were expressed by patients with chronic pain, but a discordance between the intention and PA&E-behaviour were evident, even though the PA&E were experienced as valuable. In conclusion, this thesis strengthens the importance of PA&E as treatment for chronic pain. Especially, this thesis increases the knowledge about; possible peripheral pain inhibitory effects after long-term exercise; how psychological factors might affect the results of PA&E; and also about important behavioural aspects that might affect adherence to prescribed PA&E. This thesis highlights the need of more research on physiological pain inhibitory effects of long-term PA&E in chronic pain. Furthermore, improved methods for ensured adherence to prescribed PA&E are necessary in order to optimize the effect of PA&E as treatment for chronic pain.

The Politics of Evidence

Author: Justin Parkhurst
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131738086X
Format: PDF, ePub
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There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns. Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas. Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.

Making Health Policy

Author: Buse, Kent
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 0335246346
Format: PDF, ePub
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Used across the public health field, this is the leading text in the area, focusing on the context, participants and processes of making health policy.

Vertically Transmitted Diseases

Author: Stavros Busenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642753019
Format: PDF
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Infectious diseases are transmitted through various different mechanisms including person to person interactions, by insect vectors and via vertical transmission from a parent to an unborn offspring. The population dynamics of such disease transmission can be very complicated and the development of rational strategies for controlling and preventing the spread of these diseases requires careful modeling and analysis. The book describes current methods for formulating models and analyzing the dynamics of the propagation of diseases which include vertical transmission as one of the mechanisms for their spread. Generic models that describe broad classes of diseases as well as models that are tailored to the dynamics of a specific infection are formulated and analyzed. The effects of incubation periods, maturation delays, and age-structure, interactions between disease transmission and demographic changes, population crowding, spatial spread, chaotic dynamic behavior, seasonal periodicities and discrete time interval events are studied within the context of specific disease transmission models. No previous background in disease transmission modeling and analysis is assumedand the required biological concepts and mathematical methods are gradually introduced within the context of specific disease transmission models. Graphs are widely used to illustrate and explain the modeling assumptions and results. REMARKS: NOTE: the authors have supplied variants on the promotion text that are more suitable for promotionin different fields (by virtue of different emphasis in the content). They are not enclosed, but in the mathematics editorial.