Artificial Nucleases

Author: Marina A. Zenkova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364218510X
Format: PDF, ePub
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The development of agents capable of cleaving RNA and DNA has attracted considerable attention from researchers in the last few years, because of the immediate and very important applications they can find in the emerging fields of biotechnology and pharmacology. There are essentially two classes of these agents - nucleases that occur naturally inside cells and synthetically produced artificial nucleases. The first class includes protein enzyme nucle ases and catalytic RNA structured ribozymes that perform cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds in nucleic acids according to a hydrolytic pathway in the course of different biochemical processes in the cell. A different pathway is used by some antibiotics which cleave DNA via redox-based mechanisms resulting in oxidative damage of nucleotide units and breakage of the DNA backbone. The above molecules are indispensable tools for manipulating nucleic acids and processing RNA; DNA-cleaving antibiotics and cytotoxic ribonucleases have demonstrated utility as chemotherapeutic agents. The second class, artificial nucleases, are rationally designed to imitate the active centers of natural enzymes by simple structures possessing minimal sets of the most important characteristics that are essential for catalysis. A dif ferent approach, in vitro selection, was also used to create artificial RNA and DNA enzymes capable of cleaving RNA. Being less efficient and specific as compared to the natural enzymes, the primitive mimics are smaller and robust and can function in a broad range of conditions.

Macrocyclic Polyamines

Author: Xiaoqi Yu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527341870
Format: PDF
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The first comprehensive book focusing on synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives Macrocyclic polyamines are a class of widely used important compounds. This is the first book that systematically summarizes the synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their analogues, including the properties and synthetic methods of macrocyclic polyamines, chemical nucleases based on macrocyclic polyamines, the derivatives of macrocyclic polyamines as nano-vector materials, macrocyclic polyamines derivatives for bio-imaging, chemical sensors based on macrocyclic polyamines, and other applications of macrocyclic polyamines. Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications includes most of the studies involving macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives, and may be used as a reference for the researchers in related fields. It offers in-depth coverage of cyclization modes; special procedures for tetraza macrocyclic compounds; diacids-diamines condensation; oxidative DNA cleaving by macrocyclic polyamines; lipids with cationic MPA headgroups; the derivatives of DOTA, DO3A, and PCTA; receptors for anions; sensors for bioactive molecules; macrocyclic polyamines for solvent extraction and membrane transport of amino acids and their derivatives, electrophoretic separation, and open-tubular CEC; and much more. The first book that systematically summarizes the chemistry of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives in terms of synthetic methods for their preparation, functionalization, and application in the main fields of chemical sensors, chemical nucleases, drug-delivery, bio-imaging and vector materials Provides a comprehensive reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines Offers train of thought in related research fields such as organic chemistry, coordination chemistry, analytical chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, biomaterials, etc. Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications will not only provide a reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines, but also offer opportunities for researchers in related research fields to understand the benefits of these key compounds.

Polymers and Light

Author: Wolfram Schnabel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527611037
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This first book to focus on the important and topical effect of light on polymeric materials reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the topic, building a bridge between polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry and photophysics, and materials science. Written by one experienced author, a consistent approach is maintained throughout, covering such applications as nonlinear optical materials, core materials for optical waveguides, photoresists in the production of computer chips, photoswitches and optical memories. Advanced reading for polymer, physical and organic chemists, manufacturers of optoelectronic devices, chemical engineers, and materials scientists.

The Regulation of DNA Replication and Transcription

Author: Mirko Beljanski, PhD
Publisher: Demos Medical Publishing
ISBN: 1617051829
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Regulation of DNA Replication and Transcription explores basic processes of DNA replication and transcription in an effort to identify the mechanisms responsible for the release of genetic information and its role in the regulation of cellular events. Concerned with discovering the fundamental concept that might integrate and explain the wide range of existing lines of evidence, the author reports and interprets the results of experiments conducted in an impressive range of biological systems. Focused on complex mechanisms at the biochemical level, these studies allow analysis of the pathways involved when cells, organs and animal systems react to various trigger molecules derived from both living cells and exogenous sources. These include hormones, RNA, RNA fragments, alkaloids, actinomycin D, and phorbol esters, as well as chemical carcinogens and drugs. Comnining the results of these studies with his own extensive work in this field, the author is able to formulate a uniquely integrative biochemical model for the gene expression, demonstrating that both biological and chemically synthesized molecules can trigger the differential release of information from the DNA and thus influence cell transformation. Apart from its academic significance, the model offers high potential assistance in the search for ways to induce or control the expression of certain genes and, moreover, to promote differentiation of given cells in vitro as well as in situ.

Nucleases

Author: Nawin C. Mishra
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780471394617
Format: PDF
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Nucleases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) in all organisms, including humans. In addition to their important biological role, nucleases have recently emerged as useful tools in laboratory studies, and have led to the development of such fields as recombinant DNA technology, molecular cloning, and genomics. Nawin Mishra’s Nucleases, the first comprehensive treatment of the subject, introduces the properties and biological roles of nucleases to newcomers in the field and provides the basis of their possible application to critical aspects of science, commerce, and industry. Covering the structure and biochemical properties of nucleases, Mishra’s text further guides the reader to understand how these enzymes can be exploited to make new products for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Molecular cloning, made possible by the evolving understanding and application of nucleases, may well lead to the identification and characterization of genes responsible for diseases and their possible alleviation by gene therapy and the development of designer drugs. Nucleases is a one-stop, authoritative resource for students of biology and researchers currently practicing in the field. Chapter topics include: Ribonucleases Restriction Endonucleases Topoisomerases Sugar Non-Specific Nucleases Molecules That Interact with Nucleases An ideal text and reference work for professionals and students in biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, Nucleases promises to be the field’s standard-bearer for years to come.