Asphaltenes

Author: Jorge Ancheyta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420066315
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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During the upgrading of heavy petroleum, asphaltene is the most problematic impurity since it is the main cause of catalyst deactivation and sediments formation. Exploring many aspects related to asphaltenes composition and conversion, Asphaltenes: Chemical Transformation during Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils highlights the various changes that these heavy and complex molecules undergo during catalytic hydroprocessing. After defining and characterizing asphaltene structure, the book examines the composition of petroleum and the processes and catalysts for upgrading heavy oils. It then details the characterization of asphaltenes after hydroprocessing and the effect of reaction conditions on their structures. The authors also analyze the deactivation and characterization of spent hydroprocessing catalysts as well as the role played by asphaltenes. They cover sediments formation during hydroprocessing and the role of asphaltenes on it. The final chapters describe the hydrocracking and kinetics of asphaltenes and the fractionation of heavy crudes and asphaltenes. Due to the increasing production of heavy crude oils, asphaltene has become one of the most studied molecules. This book provides a deep understanding of how asphaltenes transform during hydroprocessing, offering insight on designing catalysts and processing for the upgrading of heavy oils.

The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum Fifth Edition

Author: James G. Speight
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439873909
Format: PDF, Kindle
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With demand for petroleum products increasing worldwide, there is a tendency for existing refineries to seek new approaches to optimize efficiency and throughput. In addition, changes in product specifications due to environmental regulations greatly influence the development of petroleum refining technologies. These factors underlie the need for this fifth edition of The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, which continues in the tradition of the bestselling fourth edition, proving readers with a detailed overview of the chemistry and technology of petroleum as it evolves into the twenty-first century. The new edition has been updated with the latest developments in the refining industry, including new processes as well as updates on evolving processes and various environmental regulations. The book covers issues related to economics and future refineries, examines the changing character of refinery feedstock, and offers new discussions on environmental aspects of refining. It contains more than 300 figures and tables, including chemical structures and process flow sheets. A useful reference for scientists and engineers in the petroleum industry as well as in the catalyst manufacturing industry, this book introduces readers to the science and technology of petroleum, beginning with its formation in the ground and culminating in the production of a wide variety of products and petrochemical intermediates.

Synthetics Mineral Oils and Bio Based Lubricants

Author: Leslie R. Rudnick
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439855382
Format: PDF, ePub
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Highlighting the major economic and industrial changes in the lubrication industry since the first edition, Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants, Second Edition outlines the state of the art in each major lubricant application area. Chapters cover trends in the major industries, such as the use of lubricant fluids, growth or decline of market areas and applications, potential new applications, production capacities, and regulatory issues, including biodegradability, toxicity, and food production equipment lubrication. In a single, unique volume, Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants, Second Edition offers property and performance information of fluids, theoretical and practical background to their current applications, and strong indicators for global market trends that will influence the industry for years to come.

Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Author: Jorge Ancheyta
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118769848
Format: PDF, Docs
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Written by a scientist with more than 25 years of experience in the field, this serves as a complete guide to catalyst activity loss during the hydroprocessing of heavy oils. Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts offers a rigorous exploration of a wide range of topics in the field, including the physical and chemical properties of heavy oils and hydroprocessing catalysts; the mechanisms of catalyst deactivation; catalyst characterization by a variety of techniques and reaction conditions; and laboratory and commercial information for model validations. The content demonstrates how to develop correlations and models for a variety of reaction scales with step-by-step descriptions and detailed experimental data. It also contains important implications for increasing operational efficiencies within the petroleum industry. With in-depth explanations of models and mechanisms not found in other literature, Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts is an essential reference that industry researchers and engineering students will turn to again and again. Serves as a complete guide to catalyst activity loss during the hydroprocessing of heavy oils, written by a scientist with more than 25 years of experience in the field Explores the physical and chemical properties of heavy oils and hydroprocessing catalysts; the mechanisms of catalyst deactivation; catalyst characterization by a variety of techniques and reaction conditions; laboratory and commercial information for model validations; and more Demonstrates how to develop correlations and models for a variety of reaction scales with step-by-step descriptions and detailed experimental data Contains important implications for increasing operational efficiencies within the petroleum industry Offers an essential reference for professionals and researchers working in the refining industry, as well as students taking courses on chemical reaction engineering

The Science and Technology of Unconventional Oils

Author: M. M. Ramirez-Corredores
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128013397
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book, The Science and Technology of Unconventional Oils: Finding Refining Opportunities, intends to report the collective physical and chemical knowledge of unconventional oils (heavy, extra-heavy, sour/acid, and shale oil) and the issues associated with their refining for the production of transportation fuels. It will focus on the discussion of the scientific results and technology activities of the refining of unconventional oils. The presence of reactive and refractory compounds and components that negatively impact refining processing (the "bad actors") are discussed and analyzed. The commercially available technologies, with their reported improvements and emerging ideas, concepts, and technologies, are described. This comprehensive overview constitutes the basis for establishing technology gaps, and in return sets the science and technology needs to be addressed in the future. In summary, this book incorporates the relevant knowledge of processing unconventional crude oils and of the "Bottom-of-the-Barrel" fraction, describing the related commercially available and emerging technologies to contribute to the identification of existing gaps. Relates physicochemical properties and phenomenological behavior of unconventional oils to refining challenges Describes commercially available technologies and the problems they solve Lists recent improvements in various processes and identifies technology gaps Explains emerging new refining technologies and the problems they solve Discusses future needs and challenges, and suggests further research and development needs

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum

Author: Jorge Ancheyta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880468
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The worldwide petroleum industry is facing a dilemma: the production level of heavy petroleum is higher than that of light petroleum. Heavy crude oils possess high amounts of impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes), as well as a high yield of residue with consequent low production of valuable distillates (gasoline and diesel). These characteristics, in turn, are responsible for the low price of heavy petroleum. Additionally, existing refineries are designed to process light crude oil, and heavy oil cannot be refined to 100 percent. One solution to this problem is the installation of plants for heavy oil upgrading before sending this raw material to a refinery. Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum gives an up-to-date treatment of modeling of reactors employed in the main processes for heavy petroleum upgrading. The book includes fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, chemistry, and process variables. Process schemes for each process are discussed in detail. The author thoroughly describes the development of correlations, reactor models, and kinetic models with the aid of experimental data collected from different reaction scales. The validation of modeling results is performed by comparison with experimental and commercial data taken from the literature or generated in various laboratory scale reactors. Organized into three sections, this book deals with general aspects of properties and upgrading of heavy oils, describes the modeling of non-catalytic processes, as well as the modeling of catalytic processes. Each chapter provides detailed experimental data, explanations of how to determine model parameters, and comparisons with reactor model predictions for different situations, so that readers can adapt their own computer programs. The book includes rigorous treatment of the different topics as well as the step-by-step description of model formulation and application. It is not only an indispensable reference for professionals working in the development of reactor models for the petroleum industry, but also a textbook for full courses in chemical reaction engineering. The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to the Marcos Moshinsky Foundation for the financial support provided by means of a Cátedra de Investigación.

Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing

Author: Chang Samuel Hsu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387257896
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Includes topics not found together in books on petroleum processing: economics, automation, process modeling, online optimization, safety, environmental protection Combines overviews of petroleum composition, refinery processes, process automation, and environmental protection with comprehensive chapters on recent advances in hydroprocessing, FCC, lubricants, hydrogen management Gives diverse perspectives, both geographic and topical, because contributors include experts from eight different countries in North America, Europe and Asia, representing oil companies, universities, catalyst vendors, process licensors, consultants and engineering contractors

Catalysts in Petroleum Refining 1989

Author: D.L. Trimm
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080887005
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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These proceedings reflect the important role of catalysis in petroleum refining and the effects of factors such as environmental legislation on the industry. They also show the emergence of significant scientific expertise in the Middle East - the cradle of the oil industry. Participants from all over the world took part in the meeting and the book contains a well-balanced selection of articles from both academia and industry. Current trends in the oil industry focused attention mainly on heavy end hydrotreating, but other processes also gained their share of attention. An invaluable feature of the meeting was the two panel discussions where participants took the opportunity to obtain advance on many real and immediate problems.

Process Chemistry of Petroleum Macromolecules

Author: Irwin A. Wiehe
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420018337
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Although there is a shortage of light petroleum, there is plenty of heavy petroleum rich in macromolecules available, creating an increasing interest for processes that can convert heavy oils to light oils. Process Chemistry of Petroleum Macromolecules provides the scientific basis for such processes, presenting methods to determine improvement potential. Topics include characterization, thermal kinetics, phase behavior, and separation. Revealing that the science of petroleum macromolecules is simpler and more exciting than imagined, it also discusses macromolecules that self-associate, liquid crystalline phases, reactions triggered by phase separation, and both dispersed and dissolved solutes.

The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum

Author: James G. Speight
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824742117
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Third Edition fully covers the subject, from the underground formation of petroleum to recovery of refined products. The third edition contains additional chapters on the structure of petroleum, refining heavy feedstocks, instability and incompatibility in petroleum products, environmental aspects of refining and much more.