Athens Transformed 404 262 BC

Author: Phillip Harding
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317435443
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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During the heady, democratic days of the fifth and fourth centuries, the poorer members of Athenian society, the lower two classes of zeugitai and thetes, enjoyed an unprecedented dominance in both domestic and foreign politics. At home, the participatory nature of the constitution required their presence not only in the lawcourts and assembly, but also in most of the minor magistracies; abroad, they were the driving force of the navy, which ensured Athens’ control of the Aegean and the Black seas. Their participation at all levels was made possible by state pay (for jury duty, attendance in the assembly, public office and military service). In the fifth century state pay was financed largely through the tribute paid by members of the empire, supplemented by the liturgical contributions of the rich and, beginning during the war, a property tax (the eisphora). In the fourth century, almost the whole burden was shouldered by taxation upon the wealthy, especially those who owned property. In this book, author Phillip Harding traces the major changes that occurred in the administration of the state that eventually deprived the lower classes of their supremacy and transferred power into the hands of the wealthy land-owners. Things changed radically after Athens’ defeat in the Lamian (or Hellenic) War in 322BC. Over the next several decades, restriction of the franchise, elimination of pay for some public offices, the loss of the navy, the increased dependence upon local grain from the larger estates in Attika, the removal of the tax burden from the rich by the ending of such major liturgies as the trierarchia and the choregia and the abandoning of the eisphora all contributed to this transformation.

Intermediate Microeconomics

Author: Samiran Banerjee
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136001840
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Intermediate Microeconomics: A Tool-Building Approach is a clear and concise, calculus-based exposition of current microeconomic theory essential for students pursuing degrees in Economics or Business. This beautifully-presented and accessible text covers all the essential topics that are typically required at the intermediate level, from consumer and producer theory to market structure (perfect competition, monopoly and oligopoly). Topics covered include risk, game theory, general equilibrium and externalities, asymmetric information, and public goods. Using numerical examples as well as sophisticated and carefully designed exercises, the book aims to teach microeconomic theory via a process of learning-by-doing. When there is a skill to be acquired, a list of steps outlining the procedure is provided, followed by an example to illustrate how this procedure is carried out. Once the procedure has been learned, students will be able to solve similar problems and be well on their way to mastering the skills needed for future study. Intermediate Microeconomics presents a tremendous amount of material in a concise way, without sacrificing rigor, clarity or exposition. Through use of this text, students will acquire both the analytical toolkit and theoretical foundations necessary in order to take upper-level courses in industrial organization, international trade, public finance and other field courses. Instructors that would like to consider Intermediate Microeconomics: A Tool-Building Approach for course adoption will have access to the book’s free companion website featuring: Detailed answers to end of chapter questions All figures used in the book as PDF files suitable for inclusion in PowerPoint slides Chapter-by-Chapter zipped files of worksheets/quizzes suitable for classroom use Online exercises with questions similar to the end-of-chapter problems will be carried by WebAssign. Please contact the author at [email protected] for details, or visit his website at http://banerjeemicro.com/

Ancient History from Coins

Author: Christopher Howgego
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134877838
Format: PDF
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Like other volumes in this series, Ancient History from Coins demystifies a specialism, introducing students (from first year upwards) to the techniques, methods, problems and advantages of using coins to do ancient history. Coins are a fertile source of information for the ancient historian; yet too often historians are uneasy about using them as evidence because of the special problems attaching to their interpretation. The world of numismatics is not always easy for the non-specialist to penetrate or understand with confidence. Dr Howgego describes and anlyses the main contributions the study of coins can make to ancient history, showing shows through numerous examples how the character, patterns and behaviour of coinage bear on major historical themes. Topics range from state finance and economic policy to imperial domination and political propaganda through coins types. The period covered by the book is from the invention of coinage (ca 600BC) to AD 400.

Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity

Author: Gregory Crane
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520918740
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War is the earliest surviving realist text in the European tradition. As an account of the Peloponnesian War, it is famous both as an analysis of power politics and as a classic of political realism. From the opening speeches, Thucydides' Athenians emerge as a new and frightening source of power, motivated by self-interest and oblivious to the rules and shared values under which the Greeks had operated for centuries. Gregory Crane demonstrates how Thucydides' history brilliantly analyzes both the power and the dramatic weaknesses of realist thought. The tragedy of Thucydides' history emerges from the ultimate failure of the Athenian project. The new morality of the imperialists proved as conflicted as the old; history shows that their values were unstable and self-destructive. Thucydides' history ends with the recounting of an intellectual stalemate that, a century later, motivated Plato's greatest work. Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity includes a thought-provoking discussion questioning currently held ideas of political realism and its limits. Crane's sophisticated claim for the continuing usefulness of the political examples of the classical past will appeal to anyone interested in the conflict between the exercise of political power and the preservation of human freedom and dignity.

The Archaeology of Imperial Landscapes

Author: Bleda S. Düring
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107189705
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book examines the poorly understood transformations in rural landscapes and societies that formed the backbone of ancient empires.

Sacred Worlds

Author: Chris Park
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113487734X
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book, the first in the field for two decades, looks at the relationships between geography and religion. It represents a synthesis of research by geographers of many countries, mainly since the 1960s. No previous book has tackled this emerging field from such a broad, interdisciplinary perspective, and never before have such a variety of detailed case studies been pulled together in so comparative or illuminating a way. Examples and case studies have been drawn from all the major world religions and from all continents from both a historical and contemporary perspective. Major themes covered in the book include the distribution of religion and the processes by which religion and religious ideas spread through space and time. Some of the important links between religion and population are also explored. A great deal of attention is focused on the visible manifestations of religion on the cultural landscape, including landscapes of worship and of death, and the whole field of sacred space and religious pilgrimage.

Classical and Christian Ideas in English Renaissance Poetry

Author: Isabel Rivers
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134844174
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Since publication in 1979 Isabel Rivers' sourcebook has established itself as the essential guide to English Renaissance poetry. It: provides an account of the main classical and Christian ideas, outlining their meaning, their origins and their transmission to the Renaissance; illustrates the ways in which Renaissance poetry drew on classical and Christian ideas; contains extracts from key classical and Christian texts and relates these to the extracts of the English poems which draw on them; includes suggestions for further reading, and an invaluable bibliographical appendix.

TransAntiquity

Author: Domitilla Campanile
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317377389
Format: PDF, Docs
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TransAntiquity explores transgender practices, in particular cross-dressing, and their literary and figurative representations in antiquity. It offers a ground-breaking study of cross-dressing, both the social practice and its conceptualization, and its interaction with normative prescriptions on gender and sexuality in the ancient Mediterranean world. Special attention is paid to the reactions of the societies of the time, the impact transgender practices had on individuals’ symbolic and social capital, as well as the reactions of institutionalized power and the juridical systems. The variety of subjects and approaches demonstrates just how complex and widespread "transgender dynamics" were in antiquity.

Revolutionizing a World

Author: Mark Altaweel
Publisher: UCL Press
ISBN: 1911576631
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.