Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Author: Krist V. Gernaey
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1843391465
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena and to the large range of time constants (from a few minutes to several days). The lack of standard evaluation criteria is also a tremendous disadvantage. To really enhance the acceptance of innovative control strategies, such an evaluation needs to be based on a rigorous methodology including a simulation model, plant layout, controllers, sensors, performance criteria and test procedures, i.e. a complete benchmarking protocol. This book is a Scientific and Technical Report produced by the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants. The goal of the Task Group includes developing models and simulation tools that encompass the most typical unit processes within a wastewater treatment system (primary treatment, activated sludge, sludge treatment, etc.), as well as tools that will enable the evaluation of long-term control strategies and monitoring tasks (i.e. automatic detection of sensor and process faults). Work on these extensions has been carried out by the Task Group during the past five years, and the main results are summarized in Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants. Besides a description of the final version of the already well-known Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 (BSM1), the book includes the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 Long-Term (BSM1_LT) – with focus on benchmarking of process monitoring tasks – and the plant-wide Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2). Authors: Krist V. Gernaey, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, Ulf Jeppsson, Lund University, Sweden, Peter A. Vanrolleghem, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada and John B. Copp, Primodal Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Control and Decision Strategies in Wastewater Treatment Plants for Operation Improvement

Author: Ignacio Santín
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319463675
Format: PDF
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This book examines the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a focus on maintaining effluent water quality while keeping operational costs within constrained limits. It includes control operation and decision schemes and is based on the use of benchmarking scenarios that yield easily reproducible results that readers can implement for their own solutions. The final criterion is the effect of the applied control strategy on plant performance – specifically, improving effluent quality, reducing costs and avoiding violations of established effluent limits. The evaluation of the different control strategies is achieved with the help of two Benchmark Simulation Models (BSM1, BSM2). Given the complexity of the biological and biochemical processes involved and the major fluctuations in the influent flow rate, controlling WWTPs poses a serious challenge. Further, the importance of control goal formulation and control structure design in relation to WWTP process control is widely recognized. Of particular interest are the regulations governing the compliance with effluent criteria. Authorities measure compliance with these criteria on the basis of long or short timeframes, and the legal constraints imposed on effluent pollutant concentrations are among the most essential aspects of control structures for WWTPs. This book explores all these facets in detail.

Respirometry in Control of the Activated Sludge Process

Author: J. B. Copp
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 9781900222518
Format: PDF, ePub
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This STR includes a complete description of the simulation protocol including model plants, simulation procedures and evaluation criteria. Also included in this STR is an overview of the strategy evaluations and a look into the future of respirometry as the basis for control. Finally, to ease the transition from paper to computer, and increase the application of the IWA Simulation Benchmark, a CD is included with many benchmark files and control strategy layouts generated using a variety of simulation platforms including GPS-X, STOAT and WEST..

Frontiers in Wastewater Treatment and Modelling

Author: Giorgio Mannina
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319584219
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contributions were selected by means of a rigorous peer-review process and highlight many exciting ideas that will spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaboration among different water specialists.

Biotechnology for the Environment Wastewater Treatment and Modeling Waste Gas Handling

Author: Spiros Agathos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402011313
Format: PDF, Mobi
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At the dawn of the 21st century, biotechnology is emerging as a key enabling technology for sustainable environmental protection and stewardship. Biotechnology for the Environment: Wastewater Treatment and Modeling, Waste Gas Handling illustrates the current technological applications of microorganisms in wastewater treatment and in the control of waste gas emissions. In the first section of the book special emphasis is placed on the use of rigorous mathematical and conceptual models for an in-depth understanding of the complex biology and engineering aspects underlying the operation of modern wastewater treatment installations. The second part addresses waste gas biofiltration, an expanding biotechnological application of microbial metabolism for air quality assurance through processes ranging from the abatement of hazardous volatile pollutants to the elimination of nuisance odors. It will be a valuable reference source for environmental scientists, engineers and decision makers involved in the development, evaluation or implementation of biological treatment systems. For more information on Strategy and Fundamentals, see Focus on Biotechnology, Volume 3A, and for more information on Soil Remediation, see Focus on Biotechnology, Volume 3B.

Water Reuse

Author: Blanca Jiménez
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1843390892
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Water Reuse: An International Survey of current practice, issues and needs examines water reuse practices around the world from different perspectives. The objective is to show how differently wastewater reuse is conceived and practised around the world as well as to present the varied needs and possibilities for reusing wastewater. In the first section water reuse practices around the world are described for regions having common water availability, reuse needs and social aspects. The second section refers to the "stakeholders" point of view. Each reuse purpose demands different water quality, not only to protect health and the environment but also to fulfil the requirements of the specific reuse. Reuses considered are agricultural, urban agriculture as a special case of the former, municipal and industrial. Alongside these uses, the indirect reuse for human consumption through aquifer recharge is also discussed. The third section deals with emerging and controversial topics. Ethical and economical dilemmas in the field are presented as a subject not frequently addressed in this field. The role of governments in respect of public policy in reuse is discussed as well as the different international criteria and standards for reusing wastewater. The importance of public acceptance and the way to properly handle it is also considered. The fourth section of the book presents contrasting case studies; typical situations in the developed world (Japan and Germany) are compared to those in developing countries (Pakistan and Brazil) for agricultural and industrial reuse. Indirect planned reuse for human consumption (Germany) is compared with an unplanned one (Mexico). The Windhoek, Namibia case study is presented to emphasize why if the direct reuse of wastewater for human consumption has been performed with success for more than 35 years it is still the only example of this type around the world. To illustrate the difficulties of having a