Bentonite Clay

Author: Roland Pusch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148224344X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Studies the Environmental, Cosmetic, and Pharmaceutical Applications of Bentonite Clay Bentonite clay, of which members of the smectite family of clay minerals are particularly important, has proven to be effective in sealing off wastes from groundwater. Bentonite Clay: Environmental Properties and Applications explores the mineralogy of clays in general and of smectites in particular that represent challenging conditions for geotechnical professionals responsible for earth dam construction, the foundations of roads and buildings, and the long-term isolation of chemical and radioactive wastes. The author, a world-renowned expert on the subject, places special emphasis on the environmental behavior of bentonite clay when focused on the isolation of hazardous wastes and also considers its use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Based on classical literature and current research and development, this text provides an in-depth introduction to bentonite soil, explains the origin of smectite-rich clays, and pinpoints where they can be found. The book describes the interaction of expandable clay minerals, gas, and fluids, followed by a description of the physical and chemical properties of smectite clay saturated with water or chemical solutions. It also provides relevant findings and conclusions concerning the function of bentonite-based sealing repositories for dangerous waste. This text: Describes the constitution of smectite minerals as a basis for understanding the behavior of smectite clays and their performance in the isolation of hazardous waste Factors in the longevity of smectite clays in bentonite beds and in the form of canister-embedding buffers in repositories for deep geological disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW) Covers the design principles for clay seals and considers their function in the isolation of waste and redirecting groundwater flow Bentonite Clay: Environmental Properties and Applications documents the origin, properties, and characteristics of bentonite and its uses. A resource for researchers, practitioners, regulators, and policy makers, the text examines the use of clay in hazardous waste and nuclear waste management and provides readers with detailed descriptions of related technical solutions.

Applied Clay Mineralogy

Author: Haydn H. Murray
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080467870
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book on Applied Clay Mineralogy is comprehensive. It covers the structure, composition, and physical and chemical properties of kaolinite, halloysite, ball clays; bentonites including sodium montmorillonite, calcium montmorillonite, and hectorite; and palygorskite and sepiolite. There is also a short chapter on common clays which are used for making structural clay products and lightweight aggregate. The location and geology of the major clay deposits that are marketed worldwide and regionally include kaolins from the United States, Southwest England, Brazil, and the Czech Republic along with halloysite from New Zealand and ball clays from the US, England, Germany, and Ukraine. Bentonites from the U.S. and Europe are included along with palygorskite and sepiolite from the U.S., China, Senegal, and Spain. The mining and processing of the various clays are described. Extensive discussions of the many applications of the clays are included. The appendices cover the important laboratory tests that are used to identify and evaluate the various types of clay. Many figures are included covering electron micrographs, processing flow sheets, stratigraphy, and location maps. * Provides the structure and composition of clay minerals, as well as their phyisical and chemical properties * Discusses pplications for Kaolin, Bentonite, Palygorskite and Sepiolite * Contains appendixes of laboratory tests and procedures, as well as a test for common clays

Geologic Disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

Author: Roland Pusch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498767974
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book will address concepts and techniques for preparation and disposal of low- (LLW) and intermediate-level (ILW) radioactive waste from the nuclear industry, the weapons industry, university labs, research institutes, and from the commercial industry. It will aid decision-makers in finding optimal technical/economical solutions, including how site investigations, design, construction, identification and selection of construction materials (clay and concrete), and monitoring can be made. It will also examine techniques for isolating soil and rock contaminated by leaking nuclear plants and from damaged nuclear reactors such as those at the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear plants.

Bentonite

Author: Ajay Kumar Mishra
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781634821421
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Bentonite are usually found in deep geographical areas. They are produced from rock, fossils, weathering of volcanic ash and disposal of high-level of radioactive waste in many countries. Bentonite mainly consist of clay mineral such as montmorillinite and kaolinite. They mainly exist in cationic form of organic compounds such as aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbon and are employed to modify high cations exchange capacity, higher structural integrity, thermal conductivity, high chemical buffering capacity, and stiffness. Bentonite is a layer of natural silicate clay mineral having numerous properties such as large specific surface area, great absorption and interlayer exchangeable cation. Bentonite consists of outstanding physico-chemical properties which make it applicable in the areas such as water treatment, medical, groundwater barrier, farming, and construction. They are well known to be one of the most versatile and inexpensive treatments. The current book describes the bentonite characteristic, uses and implications for the environment in many areas of environmental science in particular, such as remediation, clean energy, water research and waste management. Researchers working in the area will benefit from the fundamental concepts and advanced approaches described in the book. The book is going to also be beneficial to researchers who are working for their graduate and postgraduate degrees in the area of science and technology. The book also provides a platform for all researchers as it covers a wide background in the subject from recent literature, abbreviations, and summaries. Additionally, this book covers a broader research area of chemistry, physics, environmental science, materials science, polymer science and engineering to present an interdisciplinary approach. This book contains the fundamental knowledge as well as recent advancements in the research and development of bentonite. The book also covers recent approaches and prospects about the current research and development of bentonite.

Microstructure of Smectite Clays and Engineering Performance

Author: Roland Pusch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482265672
Format: PDF, Docs
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Certain wastes such as nuclear wastes, are so hazardous that their disposal creates a major challenge requiring considerable technical skill and understanding. Their effective isolation in the ground depends on the properties of the surrounding clays. This authoritative book explains the detailed function of clay-based engineered barriers, gives a number of examples of the design and construction of successful sites, and sets out conceptual and theoretical models for the prediction of their performance. It begins by providing a scientific grounding in the relevant aspects of clay science and successively moves onto the practicalities, while retaining the scientific slant. It will be useful for students, and invaluable for research institutes, specialists in environmental protection agencies and consultants in the field of disposal of hazardous waste.

Clays and Clay Minerals

Author: Liam R. Wesley
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781631177798
Format: PDF
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The peculiar characteristics of clays provide it with very interesting adsorption qualities, especially for polar or ionizable molecules. Some of these characteristics include the silicates' sheet structure that makes a large surface area accessible for adsorption; the usually significant surface charge that can be responsible for strong electrostatic interactions; and clays' swelling properties and presence of exchangeable surface cations that facilitate ion-exchange mechanisms. Added to their wide availability and associated low cost, these characteristics have motivated in recent years an increasing interest in utilizing natural, processed or chemically-modified clays for the removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solutions. This book discusses the application of clay materials for the removal of organic compounds from contaminated waters. It also discusses several other topics that include time and temperature related behavior of clays; mechanical treatment of clay minerals; the workability of natural clays and clays in the ceramics industry; recent advances in hydraulic performance of clay liners; and the genesis, properties and industrial applications of bauxitic lithomargic clay.

Handbook of Clay Science

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080993710
Format: PDF
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The first edition of the Handbook of Clay Science published in 2006 assembled the scattered literature on the varied and diverse aspects that make up the discipline of clay science. The topics covered range from the fundamental structures (including textures) and properties of clays and clay minerals, through their environmental, health and industrial applications, to their analysis and characterization by modern instrumental techniques. Also included are the clay-microbe interaction, layered double hydroxides, zeolites, cement hydrates, and genesis of clay minerals as well as the history and teaching of clay science. The 2e adds new information from the intervening 6 years and adds some important subjects to make this the most comprehensive and wide-ranging coverage of clay science in one source in the English language. Provides up-to-date, comprehensive information in a single source Covers applications of clays, as well as the instrumental analytical techniques Provides a truly multidisciplinary approach to clay science

Clay Minerals

Author: Tushar Sen
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781536108231
Format: PDF, ePub
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To a geologist, clay minerals are fine particles (

Applied Environmental Materials Science for Sustainability

Author: Kobayashi, Takaomi
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522519726
Format: PDF, ePub
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The growing presence of biomass and waste has caused significant changes to the environment. With the ubiquity of these materials, there is an increasing need for proper disposal and reuse of these resources. Applied Environmental Materials Science for Sustainability is a key resource on the latest advancements in environmental materials, including the utilization of biomass and waste for advanced materials. Highlighting innovative studies on renewable resources, green technology, and chemical modification, this book is an ideal reference source for academics, researchers, professionals, and graduate students in the field of environmental and materials sciences and technologies.

Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour

Author: Raymond N. Yong
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439845298
Format: PDF, ePub
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From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource, continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth. What Happens to Soil Under Weathering, Aging, and Chemical Stress? Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation, and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour, with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soil–environment issues. The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils, especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects. A Transdisciplinary Look at Soil-Changing Processes To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of contaminated soil.