Beyond the Networked City

Author: Olivier Coutard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317633695
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Cities around the world are undergoing profound changes. In this global era, we live in a world of rising knowledge economies, digital technologies, and awareness of environmental issues. The so-called "modern infrastructural ideal" of spatially and socially ubiquitous centrally-governed infrastructures providing exclusive, homogeneous services over extensive areas, has been the standard of reference for the provision of basic essential services, such as water and energy supply. This book argues that, after decades of undisputed domination, this ideal is being increasingly questioned and that the network ideology that supports it may be waning. In order to begin exploring the highly diverse, fluid and unstable landscapes emerging beyond the networked city, this book identifies dynamics through which a ‘break’ with previous configurations has been operated, and new brittle zones of socio-technical controversy through which urban infrastructure (and its wider meaning) are being negotiated and fought over. It uncovers, across a diverse set of urban contexts, new ways in which processes of urbanization and infrastructure production are being combined with crucial sociopolitical implications: through shifting political economies of infrastructure which rework resource distribution and value creation; through new infrastructural spaces and territorialities which rebundle socio-technical systems for particular interests and claims; and through changing offsets between individual and collective appropriation, experience and mobilization of infrastructure. With contributions from leading authorities in the field and drawing on theoretical advances and original empirical material, this book is a major contribution to an ongoing infrastructural turn in urban studies, and will be of interest to all those concerned by the diverse forms and contested outcomes of contemporary urban change across North and South.

Mega Urbanization in the Global South

Author: Ayona Datta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317754727
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The global south is entering an ‘Urban Age’ where, for the first time in history, more people will be living in cities than in the countryside. The logics of this prediction have a dominant framing - rapid urbanization, uncontrolled migration, resource depletion, severe fuel shortages and the breakdown of law and order. We are told that we must be prepared. The solution is simple, they say. Mega-urbanization is an opportunity for economic growth and prosperity. Therefore we must build big, build new and build fast. With contributions from an international range of established and emerging scholars drawing upon real-world examples, Mega-Urbanization in the Global South is the first to use the lens of speed to examine the postcolonial ‘urban revolution’. From the mega-urbanization of Lusaka, to the production of satellite cities in Jakarta, to new cities built from scratch in Masdar, Songdo and Rajarhat, this book argues that speed is now the persistent feature of a range of utopian visions that seek to expedite the production of new cities. These ‘fast cities’ are the enduring images of postcolonial urbanism, which bypass actually existing urbanisms through new power-knowledge coalitions of producing, knowing and governing the city. The book explores three main themes. Part I examines fast cities as new urban utopias which propagate the illusion that they are ‘quick fix’ sustainable solutions to insulate us from future crises. Part II discusses the role of the entrepreneurial state that despite its neoliberalisation is playing a key role in shaping mega-urbanization through laws, policies and brute force. Part III finally delves into how fast cities built by entrepreneurial states actually materialise at the scale of regional urbanization rather than as metropolitan growth. This book explores the contradictions between intended and unintended outcomes of fast cities and points to their fault lines between state sovereignty, capital accumulation and citizenship. It concludes with a vision and manifesto for ‘slow’ and decelerated urbanism. This timely and original book presents urban scholars with the theoretical, empirical and methodological challenges of mega-urbanization in the global south, as well as highlighting new theoretical agendas and empirical analyses that these new forms of city-making bring to the fore.

Innovating Climate Governance

Author: Bruno Turnheim
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108278795
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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After the perceived failure of global approaches to tackling climate change, enthusiasm for local climate initiatives has blossomed world-wide, suggesting a more experimental approach to climate governance. Innovating Climate Governance: Moving Beyond Experiments looks critically at climate governance experimentation, focusing on how experimental outcomes become embedded in practices, rules and norms. Policy which encourages local action on climate change, rather than global burden-sharing, suggests a radically different approach to tackling climate issues. This book reflects on what climate governance experiments achieve, as well as what happens after and beyond these experiments. A bottom-up, polycentric approach is analyzed, exploring the outcomes of climate experiments and how they can have broader, transformative effects in society. Contributions offer a wide range of approaches and cover more than fifty empirical cases internationally, making this an ideal resource for academics and practitioners involved in studying, developing and evaluating climate governance.

Splintering Urbanism

Author: Steve Graham
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113465698X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Splintering Urbanism makes an international and interdisciplinary analysis of the complex interactions between infrastructure networks and urban spaces. It delivers a new and powerful way of understanding contemporary urban change, bringing together discussions about: *globalization and the city *technology and society *urban space and urban networks *infrastructure and the built environment *developed, developing and post-communist worlds. With a range of case studies, illustrations and boxed examples, from New York to Jakarta, Johannesberg to Manila and Sao Paolo to Melbourne, Splintering Urbanism demonstrates the latest social, urban and technological theories, which give us an understanding of our contemporary metropolis.

The Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South

Author: Susan Parnell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136678204
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The renaissance in urban theory draws directly from a fresh focus on the neglected realities of cities beyond the west and embraces the global south as the epicentre of urbanism. This Handbook engages the complex ways in which cities of the global south and the global north are rapidly shifting, the imperative for multiple genealogies of knowledge production, as well as a diversity of empirical entry points to understand contemporary urban dynamics. The Handbook works towards a geographical realignment in urban studies, bringing into conversation a wide array of cities across the global south – the ‘ordinary’, ‘mega’, ‘global’ and ‘peripheral’. With interdisciplinary contributions from a range of leading international experts, it profiles an emergent and geographically diverse body of work. The contributions draw on conflicting and divergent debates to open up discussion on the meaning of the city in, or of, the global south; arguments that are fluid and increasingly contested geographically and conceptually. It reflects on critical urbanism, the macro- and micro-scale forces that shape cities, including ideological, demographic and technological shifts, and constantly changing global and regional economic dynamics. Working with southern reference points, the chapters present themes in urban politics, identity and environment in ways that (re)frame our thinking about cities. The Handbook engages the twenty-first-century city through a ‘southern urban’ lens to stimulate scholarly, professional and activist engagements with the city.

Imaginaires de la vi ll e en hauteur

Author:
Publisher: Editions L'Harmattan
ISBN: 2140069684
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ce numéro propose de renverser nos façons de faire de la géographie et d'aller explorer la boîte noire de la ville tridimensionnelle. La prise de hauteur de nos environnements urbains ainsi que les multiples facettes des imaginaires de la vi(ll)e verticale retracent les trajectoires de patrimonialisation ou de démonisation des gratte-ciel et des grands ensembles modernes.

Infrastructural Lives

Author: Stephen Graham
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131768639X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Infrastructural Lives is the first book to describe the everyday experience and politics of urban infrastructures. It focuses on a range of infrastructures in both the global South and North. The book examines how day-to-day experience and perception of infrastructure provides a new and powerful lens to view urban sustainability, politics, economics, cultures and ecologies. An interdisciplinary group of leading and emerging urban researchers examine critical questions about urban infrastructure in different global contexts. The chapters address water, sanitation, and waste politics in Mumbai, Kampala and Tyneside, analyse the use of infrastructure in the dispossession of Palestinian communities, explore the pacification of Rio’s favelas in the run-up to the 2014 World Cup, describe how people’s bodies and lives effectively operate as ‘infrastructure’ in many major cities, and also explores tentative experiments with low-carbon infrastructures. These diverse cases and perspectives are connected by a shared sense of infrastructure not just as a ‘thing’, a ‘system’, or an ‘output,’ but as a complex social and technological process that enables – or disables – particular kinds of action in the city. Infrastructural Lives is crucial reading for academics, researchers, students and practitioners in urban studies globally.

The Beauty Trade

Author: Angela B. McCracken
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199908079
Format: PDF, Mobi
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While it is frequently trivialized, the business of beauty is one of the most important global industries, generating millions of dollars and implicating many more the world over, from consumers to corporate elites. As trends spread so do ideas about standards of appearance and what is necessary to look good and fit in -- standards that are often influenced by ideas about race, class and gender norms. In looking at beauty products, practices, and ideas of youth in Guadalajara, Mexico, The Beauty Trade takes seriously the question of whether and how beauty norms are changing in relation to the globalizing beauty economy. Angela B. V. McCracken considers who benefits and who loses from beauty globalization and what this means for gender norms among youth. Weaving together fascinating ethnographic research on beauty practices and insights from political economy theory, the book presents a feminist analysis of the global economy of beauty. Rather than a sign of frivolity, the beauty economy is intimately connected to youth's social and economic development. Cosmetic makeovers have become a modern rite of passage for girls, enabling social connections and differentiations, as well as entrepreneurial activities. The global beauty economy is a phenomenon generated by young people, mostly women, laboring in, teaching, and consuming beauty --- and eager for belonging and originality, using every mechanism at their disposal to enhance their appearance. As McCracken shows, globalization is not homogenizing beauty standards to a Western ideal; rather, it is diversifying beauty standards. The Beauty Trade explains how globalization, combined with youth's desires for uniqueness, is enabling the spread of a diversity of beauty cultures, including alternative visions of gender appropriate looks and behavior.

Beware of smart people Redefining the smart city paradigm towards inclusive urbanism

Author: Stollmann, Jörg
Publisher: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin
ISBN: 3798328463
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Smart City paradigm aims at resource efficient urban development by means of ICT implementation. Cities where we work and conduct our research are building Smart City strategies and that research institutions increasingly fund research into the development of smart infrastructure and. Smart Cities are considered a radical paradigm shift and motors of technological innovation: economic growth, higher quality of life, efficiency and risk control in the face of shrinking resources and impending climate change. This smartification is contrasted by increasing calls by civil society and urban social movements for more encompassing inclusion in decision-making. New urban actors are acquiring agency through situated knowledge, local expertise, social networking, and cooperation and collaboration skills. Behind these movements a seemingly parallel discourse to the “Smart City” paradigm is gaining ground – the discourse of the commons. Commons are defined as the combination of resources, people and practices: resources which are defined and managed by a group of people – of commoners – and a practice of commoning that looks after, takes care for and fosters this resource without exhausting it. Commoning is a practice that seems closer than any other practice to a sustainable way of life. Are these two discourses – the discourse on the Smart City and the discourse on the urban commons – irreconcilable antagonists or do they share a common ground which needs to be uncovered, developed and advocated. This question is by no means merely theoretical. It is also a very practical question which pertains to the management and distribution of the resources we depend on. It is a very political question as it demands negotiation and the taking of sides. And it is an ethical question in that it relates to how we respect and stand up for each other – our fellow human beings and also the non-human nature for which we are responsible. The essays and transcripts of the symposium “Beware of Smart People!” want to make a first contribution and stimulate future research in the field. Das Paradigma der Smart City ist Ausdruck der Ambition, Stadtentwicklung durch die Anwendung von IKT effizient und Ressourcen schonend zu gestalten. Städte in denen wir arbeiten und über die wir forschen entwickeln Smart City Strategien und Forschungsförderung spezialisiert sich zunehmend auf die Entwicklung „smarter“ Infrastrukturen und Steuerungsmechanismen. Smart Cities werden als radikaler Paradigmenwechsel gelesen und als Motoren technologischer Entwicklung: ökonomisches Wachstum, höhere Lebensqualität, Effizienz und Risikokontrolle angesichts abnehmender Ressourcen und drohenden Klimawandels. Dieser „Smartifizierung“ stehen die zunehmenden Forderungen zivilgesellschaftlicher Gruppen und sozialer Bewegungen für mehr und umfassendere Einbindung in Entscheidungsprozesse entgegen. Neue urbane Akteure werden zu Agenten, indem sie ihre Erfahrungswissen, ihre lokalen Kenntnisse, ihre sozialen Netzwerke und Fähigkeiten zur Kooperation und Kollaboration einbringen. Hintergrund diese Bewegungen ist ein augenscheinlich paralleler Diskurs zur „Smart City“ welcher sich zunehmend Gehör verschafft – der Diskurs über die Gemeingüter, die Commons. Commons werden definiert als das Zusammenspiel von Ressourcen, Menschen und Praktiken: Ressourcen, die von einer Gemeinschaft – den Commonern - definiert und verwaltet werden, und eine Praxis des Commoning, welche die Ressource schonend bewirtschaftet ohne sie zu verbrauchen. In diesem Sinne scheint Commoning eine Praxis, die einer nachhaltigen Lebensweise am nächsten kommt. Sind diese zwei Diskurse – der Diskurs über die Smart City und jener über die urbanen Gemeingüter – unvereinbare Antagonisten oder teilen sie Gemeinsamkeiten, welche offen gelegt, weiter entwickelt und verfechtet werden sollten? Diese Frage ist keineswegs eine rein theoretische. Sie ist eine sehr praktische Frage, da sie auf das die Verteilung und das Management lebenswichtiger Ressourcen zielt. Sie ist eine politische Frage, da sie Auseinandersetzung und Parteinahme einfordert. Und sie ist eine ethische Frage, denn sie fordert gegenseitigen Respekt und Einsatz ein – für unsere Mitmenschen sowie für die nichtmenschliche Natur für die wir Verantwortung tragen. Die Texte und Aufzeichnungen des Symposiums „Beware of Smart People!“ wollen hierzu einen Beitrag leisten und zukünftige Forschungsvorhaben stimulieren.

Visualizing RNA Dynamics in the Cell

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128024887
Format: PDF, ePub
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Methods in Enzymology: Visualizing RNA Dynamics in the Cell continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods visualizing RNA dynamics in the cell, and includes sections on such topics as identification of RNA cis-regulatory sequences, IRAS, IMAGEtags, MERFISH, plant RNA labeling using MS2, and visualization of 5S dynamics in live cells using photostable corn probe. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in visualizing RNA dynamics in the cell Contains sections on such topics as identification of RNA cis-regulatory sequences, IRAS, IMAGEtags, MERFISH, plant RNA labeling using MS2 and visualization of 5S dynamics in live cells using photostable corn probe