Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration

Author: Colin E. Dunn
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080546490
Format: PDF, Docs
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Significant refinements of biogeochemical methods applied to mineral exploration have been made during more than twenty years since the last major publication on this technique. This innovative, practical and comprehensive text is designed as a field handbook and an office reference volume. It outlines the historical development of biogeochemical methods applied to mineral exploration, and provides details of what, how, why and when to collect samples from all major climatic environments with examples from around the world. Recent commercialization of sophisticated analytical technology permits immensely more insight into the multi-element composition of plants. In particular, precise determination of ultra-trace levels of ‘pathfinder’ elements in dry tissues and recognition of element distribution patterns with respect to concealed mineralization. Data handling and interpretation are discussed in context of a wealth of previously unpublished information, including a section on plant mineralogy, much of which has been classified as confidential until recently. Data are provided on the biogeochemistry of more than 60 elements and, by case history examples, their roles discussed in assisting in the discovery of concealed mineral deposits. A look to the future includes the potential role of bacteria to provide new focus for mineral exploration. Analyses of samples from the controlled environment of Britain’s Eden Project are presented on an accompanying CD as part of a database that includes, also, the potential role of the halogens to assist in mineral exploration. Data on this CD provide a ‘hands-on’ approach for the reader to interrogate and personally assess real datasets from the burgeoning discipline of biogeochemical exploration. * Describes the practical aspects of plant selection and collection in different environments around the world, and how to process and analyze them * Discusses more than 60 elements in plants, with data interpretation and case history results that include exploration for Au, PGEs, U, base metals and kimberlites * Contains databases as digital files on an accompanying CD for "hands-on" experimentation with real biogeochemical data

Geochemical Anomaly and Mineral Prospectivity Mapping in GIS

Author: E.J.M. Carranza
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080930312
Format: PDF
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The book documents and explains, in three parts, geochemical anomaly and mineral prospectivity mapping by using a geographic information system (GIS). Part I reviews and couples the concepts of (a) mapping geochemical anomalies and mineral prospectivity and (b) spatial data models, management and operations in a GIS. Part II demonstrates GIS-aided and GIS-based techniques for analysis of robust thresholds in mapping of geochemical anomalies. Part III explains GIS-aided and GIS-based techniques for spatial data analysis and geo-information sybthesis for conceptual and predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity. Because methods of geochemical anomaly mapping and mineral potential mapping are highly specialized yet diverse, the book explains only methods in which GIS plays an important role. The book avoids using language and functional organization of particular commercial GIS software, but explains, where necessary, GIS functionality and spatial data structures appropriate to problems in geochemical anomaly mapping and mineral potential mapping. Because GIS-based methods of spatial data analysis and spatial data integration are quantitative, which can be complicated to non-numerate readers, the book simplifies explanations of mathematical concepts and their applications so that the methods demonstrated would be useful to professional geoscientists, to mineral explorationists and to research students in fields that involve analysis and integration of maps or spatial datasets. The book provides adequate illustrations for more thorough explanation of the various concepts. *Explains GIS functionality and spatial data structures appropriate regardless of the particular GIS software in use *Simplifies explanation of mathematical concepts and application *Illustrated for more thorough explanation of concepts

Noble Metals and Biological Systems

Author: Robert R. Brooks
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849361647
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Noble Metals and Biological Systems examines the relationship between noble metals (gold, silver, and platinum group metals) and biological systems. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 is concerned with the analytical chemistry of noble metals and includes a description of the latest methods of analysis. Part 2 describes such topics as ecology and environmental science of noble metals as they pertain to biogeochemical exploration, noble metals in hair, the environmental geochemistry of palladium, microorganisms and noble metals, animals and noble metals, and a general survey of noble metals in the environment. Coverage is comprehensive and includes information regarding the use of dogs and termites as field assistants in mineral prospecting, as well as the fascinating story of the "gold bug", a microorganism that plates itself with gold. Part 3 is devoted entirely to noble metals in the treatment of disease and includes chapters describing the use of osmium and gold for arthritis treatment, silver as a bactericide, and platinum and ruthenium as anticancer agents. Noble Metals and Biological Systems will provide fascinating reading for applied geochemists, environmentalists, public health specialists, ecologists, microbiologists, clinical biochemists, oncologists, and specialists in rheumatic diseases.

Mineral Resources

Author: Manuel Bustillo Revuelta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319587609
Format: PDF
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This comprehensive textbook covers all major topics related to the utilization of mineral resources for human activities. It begins with general concepts like definitions of mineral resources, mineral resources and humans, recycling mineral resources, distribution of minerals resources across Earth, and international standards in mining, among others. Then it turns to a classification of mineral resources, covering the main types from a geological standpoint. The exploration of mineral resources is also treated, including geophysical methods of exploration, borehole geophysical logging, geochemical methods, drilling methods, and mineral deposit models in exploration. Further, the book addresses the evaluation of mineral resources, from sampling techniques to the economic evaluation of mining projects (i.e. types and density of sampling, mean grade definition and calculation, Sichel’s estimator, evaluation methods – classical and geostatistical, economic evaluation – NPV, IRR, and PP, estimation of risk, and software for evaluating mineral resources). It subsequently describes key mineral resource exploitation methods (open pit and underground mining) and the mineral processing required to obtain saleable products (crushing, grinding, sizing, ore separation, and concentrate dewatering, also with some text devoted to tailings dams). Lastly, the book discusses the environmental impact of mining, covering all the aspects of this very important topic, from the description of diverse impacts to the environmental impact assessment (EIA), which is essential in modern mining projects.

SME Mining Engineering Handbook Third Edition

Author: Peter Darling
Publisher: SME
ISBN: 0873352645
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This third edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook reaffirms its international reputation as "the handbook of choice" for today's practicing mining engineer. It distills the body of knowledge that characterizes mining engineering as a disciplinary field and has subsequently helped to inspire and inform generations of mining professionals.Virtually all of the information is original content, representing the latest information from more than 250 internationally recognized mining industry experts. Within the handbook's 115 thought-provoking chapters are current topics relevant to today's mining professional: Analyzing how the mining and minerals industry will develop over the medium and long term--why such changes are inevitable, what this will mean in terms of challenges, and how they could be managed Explaining the mechanics associated with the multifaceted world of mine and mineral economics, from the decisions associated with how best to finance a single piece of high-value equipment to the long-term cash-flow issues associated with mine planning at a mature operation Describing the recent and ongoing technical initiatives and engineering developments in relation to robotics, automation, acid rock drainage, block caving optimization, or process dewatering methods Examining in detail the methods and equipment available to achieve efficient, predictable, and safe rock breaking, whether employing a tunnel boring machine for development work, mineral extraction using a mobile miner, or cast blasting at a surface coal operation Identifying the salient points that dictate which is the safest, most efficient, and most versatile extraction method to employ, as well as describing in detail how each alternative is engineered Discussing the impacts that social and environmental issues have on mining from the pre-exploration phase to end-of-mine issues and beyond, and how to manage these two increasingly important factors to the benefit of both the mining companies and other stakeholders

Mineral Exploration Practical Application

Author: G.S. Roonwal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811056048
Format: PDF
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The book introduces essential concept of mineral exploration, mine evaluation and resource assessment of the discovered mineral deposit to students, beginners and professionals. The book is divided into nine chapters which will help the readers to incorporate the concepts of search for mineral deposits and understand the chances of success. The book discusses the fundamental details like composition of earth and mineral resources, formation of rock and mineral deposits, and the attempt to search for ore deposits to advance applications of remote sensing in mineral exploration. It also covers the details on how to conduct system of survey, evaluation, and how to arrive at a decision to open and carryout further exploration in the operating mine. The book shall be of great interest to geologists and mining community.

Essentials of Medical Geology

Author: Olle Selinus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400743750
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Essentials of Medical Geology reviews the essential concepts and practical tools required to tackle environmental and public health problems. It is organized into four main sections. The first section deals with the fundamentals of environmental biology, the natural and anthropogenic sources of health elements that impact health and illustrate key biogeochemical transformations. The second section looks at the geological processes influencing human exposure to specific elements, such as radon, arsenic, fluorine, selenium and iodine. The third section presents the concepts and techniques of pathology, toxicology and epidemiology that underpin investigations into the human health effects of exposure to naturally occurring elements. The last section provides a toolbox of analytical approaches to environmental research and medical geology investigations. Essentials of Medical Geology was first published in 2005 and has since won three prestigious rewards. The book has been recognized as a key book in both medical and geology fields and is widely used as textbook and reference book in these fields. For this revised edition, editors and authors have updated the content that evolved a lot during 2005 and added two new chapters, on public health, and agriculture and health. This updated volume can now continue to be used as a textbook and reference book for all who are interested in this important topic and its impacts the health and wellbeing of many millions of people all over the world. · Addresses key topics at the intersection of environmental science and human health · Developed by 60 international experts from 20 countries and edited by professionals from the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA) · Written in non-technical language for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from students and professional researchers to policymakers and the general public · Includes color illustrations throughout, references for further investigation and other aids to the reader

Regolith Exploration Geochemistry in Tropical and Subtropical Terrains

Author: C.R.M. Butt
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291227
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The use of exploration geochemistry has increased enormously in the last decade. The present volume specifically addresses those geochemical exploration practices appropriate for tropical, sub-tropical and adjacent areas – in environments ranging from rainforest to desert. Practical recommendations are made for the optimization of sampling, and analytical and interpretational procedures for exploration according to the particular nature of tropically weathered terrains. The underlying theme is the recognition that regions between 35°N and 35°S in particular have a common history of deep chemical weathering and lateritization during the late Mesozoic and early Tertiary. This has had a profound and lasting effect, so that the surface geochemical expressions of mineralization throughout these regions have many similar features, with local modification due to more recent weathering under changed climates. The volume discusses the data derived from numerous research and case studies in terms of exploration and dispersion models based on the weathering and geomorphological history. The models permit valid comparisons between equivalent terrains that may be geographically widely separated and situated in quite different climatic environments. The basis of the volume is to view geochemical dispersion within the context of a genetic understanding of the evolution of landforms and the regolith (i.e. landscape geochemistry) and to develop exploration procedures based on this understanding. This book should be of interest to exploration geochemists, economic geologists, soil scientists, geomorphologists and environmental geochemists.

Geochemical Methods of Prospecting for Non Metallic Minerals

Author: Komov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466564571
Format: PDF
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Geochemical methods of prospecting for and evaluation of minerals are applied widely today at all stages of geological exploration. However, geochemical methods of prospecting for many classes of non-metallic minerals have not been elaborated. This book is a completely revised, updated and expanded edition of the publication by the same authors, which was published in 1987. The contains a collection the latest data on geochemical prospecting for non-metals, which is valuable in view of the anticipated increase of consumption and utilization of non-metallic minerals in the future. The information on various types of raw material is presented in the following sequence: 1) general data (genetic types, conditions of formation, geological prospecting indications); 2) indicator minerals and elements; 3) geochemical methods of prospecting along dispersion trains and haloes, plus hydrogeochemical and geobotanical methods; 4) primary endogenic haloes; 5) vertical geochemical zonality; 6) methods, stages and sequence of work.