Biological Learning and Control

Author: Reza Shadmehr
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262016966
Format: PDF, ePub
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In this work, the authors present a theoretical framework for understanding the regularity of the brain's perceptions, its reactions to sensory stimuli, and its control of movements.

Human Robotics

Author: Etienne Burdet
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262314827
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book proposes a transdisciplinary approach to investigating human motor control that synthesizes musculoskeletal biomechanics and neural control. The authors argue that this integrated approach -- which uses the framework of robotics to understand sensorimotor control problems -- offers a more complete and accurate description than either a purely neural computational approach or a purely biomechanical one.The authors offer an account of motor control in which explanatory models are based on experimental evidence using mathematical approaches reminiscent of physics. These computational models yield algorithms for motor control that may be used as tools to investigate or treat diseases of the sensorimotor system and to guide the development of algorithms and hardware that can be incorporated into products designed to assist with the tasks of daily living. The authors focus on the insights their approach offers in understanding how movement of the arm is controlled and how the control adapts to changing environments. The book begins with muscle mechanics and control, progresses in a logical manner to planning and behavior, and describes applications in neurorehabilitation and robotics. The material is self-contained, and accessible to researchers and professionals in a range of fields, including psychology, kinesiology, neurology, computer science, and robotics.

An Introductory Course in Computational Neuroscience

Author: Paul Miller
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262038250
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A textbook for students with limited background in mathematics and computer coding, emphasizing computer tutorials that guide readers in producing models of neural behavior. This introductory text teaches students to understand, simulate, and analyze the complex behaviors of individual neurons and brain circuits. It is built around computer tutorials that guide students in producing models of neural behavior, with the associated Matlab code freely available online. From these models students learn how individual neurons function and how, when connected, neurons cooperate in a circuit. The book demonstrates through simulated models how oscillations, multistability, post-stimulus rebounds, and chaos can arise within either single neurons or circuits, and it explores their roles in the brain. The book first presents essential background in neuroscience, physics, mathematics, and Matlab, with explanations illustrated by many example problems. Subsequent chapters cover the neuron and spike production; single spike trains and the underlying cognitive processes; conductance-based models; the simulation of synaptic connections; firing-rate models of large-scale circuit operation; dynamical systems and their components; synaptic plasticity; and techniques for analysis of neuron population datasets, including principal components analysis, hidden Markov modeling, and Bayesian decoding. Accessible to undergraduates in life sciences with limited background in mathematics and computer coding, the book can be used in a “flipped” or “inverted” teaching approach, with class time devoted to hands-on work on the computer tutorials. It can also be a resource for graduate students in the life sciences who wish to gain computing skills and a deeper knowledge of neural function and neural circuits.

From Neuron to Cognition via Computational Neuroscience

Author: Michael A. Arbib
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262335271
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This textbook presents a wide range of subjects in neuroscience from a computational perspective. It offers a comprehensive, integrated introduction to core topics, using computational tools to trace a path from neurons and circuits to behavior and cognition. Moreover, the chapters show how computational neuroscience -- methods for modeling the causal interactions underlying neural systems -- complements empirical research in advancing the understanding of brain and behavior. The chapters -- all by leaders in the field, and carefully integrated by the editors -- cover such subjects as action and motor control; neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, and reinforcement learning; vision; and language -- the core of human cognition.The book can be used for advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses. It presents all necessary background in neuroscience beyond basic facts about neurons and synapses and general ideas about the structure and function of the human brain. Students should be familiar with differential equations and probability theory, and be able to pick up the basics of programming in MATLAB and/or Python. Slides, exercises, and other ancillary materials are freely available online, and many of the models described in the chapters are documented in the brain operation database, BODB (which is also described in a book chapter).ContributorsMichael A. Arbib, Joseph Ayers, James Bednar, Andrej Bicanski, James J. Bonaiuto, Nicolas Brunel, Jean-Marie Cabelguen, Carmen Canavier, Angelo Cangelosi, Richard P. Cooper, Carlos R. Cortes, Nathaniel Daw, Paul Dean, Peter Ford Dominey, Pierre Enel, Jean-Marc Fellous, Stefano Fusi, Wulfram Gerstner, Frank Grasso, Jacqueline A. Griego, Ziad M. Hafed, Michael E. Hasselmo, Auke Ijspeert, Stephanie Jones, Daniel Kersten, Jeremie Knuesel, Owen Lewis, William W. Lytton, Tomaso Poggio, John Porrill, Tony J. Prescott, John Rinzel, Edmund Rolls, Jonathan Rubin, Nicolas Schweighofer, Mohamed A. Sherif, Malle A. Tagamets, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Nathan Vierling-Claasen, Xiao-Jing Wang, Christopher Williams, Ransom Winder, Alan L. Yuille

Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Author: Dana H. Ballard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028611
Format: PDF, ePub
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An argument that the complexities of brain function can be understood hierarchically, in terms of different levels of abstraction, as silicon computing is.

Broken Movement

Author: John W. Krakauer
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026203722X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The current landscape of upper limb neurorehabilitation -- Upper limb paresis: phenotype, anatomy, and physiology -- Acute hemiparesis: spontaneous biological recovery, the -- Effect of training, sensitive periods, and reorganization -- The molecular and cellular biology of the peri-infarct -- Cortex and beyond: repair and reorganization -- A hierarchical framework for tissue repair after stroke -- Chronic hemiparesis: motor learning, compensation and the -- Challenge of reversing impairment in late stroke -- Pharmacological and cell therapies for recovery from stroke -- A future approach to neurorehabilitation after stroke: if -- Humans had wings

The Computational Neurobiology of Reaching and Pointing

Author: Reza Shadmehr
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262195089
Format: PDF, Docs
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An introduction to the computational biology of reaching and pointing, with an emphasis on motor learning. Neuroscience involves the study of the nervous system, and its topics range from genetics to inferential reasoning. At its heart, however, lies a search for understanding how the environment affects the nervous system and how the nervous system, in turn, empowers us to interact with and alter our environment. This empowerment requires motor learning. The Computational Neurobiology of Reaching and Pointing addresses the neural mechanisms of one important form of motor learning. The authors integrate material from the computational, behavioral, and neural sciences of motor control that is not available in any other single source. The result is a unified, comprehensive model of reaching and pointing. The book is intended to be used as a text by graduate students in both neuroscience and bioengineering and as a reference source by experts in neuroscience, robotics, and other disciplines. The book begins with an overview of the evolution, anatomy, and physiology of the motor system, including the mechanisms for generating force and maintaining limb stability. The sections that follow, "Computing Locations and Displacements", "Skills, Adaptations, and Trajectories", and "Predictions, Decisions, and Flexibility", present a theory of sensorially guided reaching and pointing that evolves organically based on computational principles rather than a traditional structure-by-structure approach. The book also includes five appendixes that provide brief refreshers on fundamentals of biology, mathematics, physics, and neurophysiology, as well as a glossary of relevant terms. The authors have also made supplemental materials available on the Internet. These web documents provide source code for simulations, step-by-step derivations of certain mathematical formulations, and expanded explanations of some concepts.

Neural Engineering

Author: Chris Eliasmith
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262550604
Format: PDF, ePub
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A synthesis of current approaches to adapting engineering tools to the study of neurobiological systems.

NeuroAnalysis

Author: Avi Peled
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134057792
Format: PDF, ePub
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NeuroAnalysis investigates using the neural network and neural computation models to bridge the divide between psychology, psychoanalysis, and neuroscience when diagnosing mental health disorders and prescribing treatment. Avi Peled builds on Freud's early attempts to explain the neural basis of mental health by introducing neural computation as a bridging science to explain psychiatric disorders. Peled describes the brain as a complex system of interconnected units and goes on to suggest that conscious experience, feelings, and mood are emergent properties arising from these complex organisations. This model describes mental health disorders in terms of perturbation to the optimal brain organisation, and demonstrates how particular disorders can be identified through a specific breakdown pattern of the brain’s organisation. This fresh approach to the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders will interest students, professors, and researchers of psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and their related fields.

Brain Signal Analysis

Author: Todd C. Handy
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262013088
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Recent developments in the tools and techniques of data acquisition and analysis incognitive electrophysiology.