Biological Learning and Control

Author: Reza Shadmehr
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262016966
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In Biological Learning and Control, Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi present a theoretical framework for understanding the regularity of the brain's perceptions, its reactions to sensory stimuli, and its control of movements. They offer an account of perception as the combination of prediction and observation: the brain builds internal models that describe what should happen and then combines this prediction with reports from the sensory system to form a belief. Considering the brain's control of movements, and variations despite biomechanical similarities among old and young, healthy and unhealthy, and humans and other animals, Shadmehr and Mussa-Ivaldi review evidence suggesting that motor commands reflect an economic decision made by our brain weighing reward and effort. This evidence also suggests that the brain prefers to receive a reward sooner than later, devaluing or discounting reward with the passage of time; then as the value of the expected reward changes in the brain with the passing of time (because of development, disease, or evolution), the shape of our movements will also change. The internal models formed by the brain provide the brain with an essential survival skill: the ability to predict based on past observations. The formal concepts presented by Shadmehr and Mussa-Ivaldi offer a way to describe how representations are formed, what structure they have, and how the theoretical concepts can be tested.

Neural Control Engineering

Author: Steven J. Schiff
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262015374
Format: PDF, Mobi
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How powerful new methods in nonlinear control engineering can be applied to neuroscience, from fundamental model formulation to advanced medical applications.

Human Robotics

Author: Etienne Burdet
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262314827
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book proposes a transdisciplinary approach to investigating human motor control that synthesizes musculoskeletal biomechanics and neural control. The authors argue that this integrated approach -- which uses the framework of robotics to understand sensorimotor control problems -- offers a more complete and accurate description than either a purely neural computational approach or a purely biomechanical one.The authors offer an account of motor control in which explanatory models are based on experimental evidence using mathematical approaches reminiscent of physics. These computational models yield algorithms for motor control that may be used as tools to investigate or treat diseases of the sensorimotor system and to guide the development of algorithms and hardware that can be incorporated into products designed to assist with the tasks of daily living. The authors focus on the insights their approach offers in understanding how movement of the arm is controlled and how the control adapts to changing environments. The book begins with muscle mechanics and control, progresses in a logical manner to planning and behavior, and describes applications in neurorehabilitation and robotics. The material is self-contained, and accessible to researchers and professionals in a range of fields, including psychology, kinesiology, neurology, computer science, and robotics.

From Neuron to Cognition via Computational Neuroscience

Author: Michael A. Arbib
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262335271
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This textbook presents a wide range of subjects in neuroscience from a computational perspective. It offers a comprehensive, integrated introduction to core topics, using computational tools to trace a path from neurons and circuits to behavior and cognition. Moreover, the chapters show how computational neuroscience -- methods for modeling the causal interactions underlying neural systems -- complements empirical research in advancing the understanding of brain and behavior. The chapters -- all by leaders in the field, and carefully integrated by the editors -- cover such subjects as action and motor control; neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, and reinforcement learning; vision; and language -- the core of human cognition.The book can be used for advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses. It presents all necessary background in neuroscience beyond basic facts about neurons and synapses and general ideas about the structure and function of the human brain. Students should be familiar with differential equations and probability theory, and be able to pick up the basics of programming in MATLAB and/or Python. Slides, exercises, and other ancillary materials are freely available online, and many of the models described in the chapters are documented in the brain operation database, BODB (which is also described in a book chapter).ContributorsMichael A. Arbib, Joseph Ayers, James Bednar, Andrej Bicanski, James J. Bonaiuto, Nicolas Brunel, Jean-Marie Cabelguen, Carmen Canavier, Angelo Cangelosi, Richard P. Cooper, Carlos R. Cortes, Nathaniel Daw, Paul Dean, Peter Ford Dominey, Pierre Enel, Jean-Marc Fellous, Stefano Fusi, Wulfram Gerstner, Frank Grasso, Jacqueline A. Griego, Ziad M. Hafed, Michael E. Hasselmo, Auke Ijspeert, Stephanie Jones, Daniel Kersten, Jeremie Knuesel, Owen Lewis, William W. Lytton, Tomaso Poggio, John Porrill, Tony J. Prescott, John Rinzel, Edmund Rolls, Jonathan Rubin, Nicolas Schweighofer, Mohamed A. Sherif, Malle A. Tagamets, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Nathan Vierling-Claasen, Xiao-Jing Wang, Christopher Williams, Ransom Winder, Alan L. Yuille

Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Author: Dana H. Ballard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028611
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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An argument that the complexities of brain function can be understood hierarchically, in terms of different levels of abstraction, as silicon computing is.

Broken Movement

Author: John W. Krakauer
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026203722X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The current landscape of upper limb neurorehabilitation -- Upper limb paresis: phenotype, anatomy, and physiology -- Acute hemiparesis: spontaneous biological recovery, the -- Effect of training, sensitive periods, and reorganization -- The molecular and cellular biology of the peri-infarct -- Cortex and beyond: repair and reorganization -- A hierarchical framework for tissue repair after stroke -- Chronic hemiparesis: motor learning, compensation and the -- Challenge of reversing impairment in late stroke -- Pharmacological and cell therapies for recovery from stroke -- A future approach to neurorehabilitation after stroke: if -- Humans had wings

Reach to Grasp Behavior

Author: Daniela Corbetta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429885938
Format: PDF
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Reaching for objects in our surroundings is an everyday activity that most humans perform seamlessly a hundred times a day. It is nonetheless a complex behavior that requires the perception of objects’ features, action selection, movement planning, multi-joint coordination, force regulation, and the integration of all of these properties during the actions themselves to meet the successful demands of extremely varied task goals. Even though reach-to-grasp behavior has been studied for decades, it has, in recent years, become a particularly growing area of multidisciplinary research because of its crucial role in activities of daily living and broad range of applications to other fields, including physical rehabilitation, prosthetics, and robotics. This volume brings together novel and exciting research that sheds light into the complex sensory-motor processes involved in the selection and production of reach-to-grasp behaviors. It also offers a unique life-span and multidisciplinary perspective on the development and multiple processes involved in the formation of reach-to-grasp. It covers recent and exciting discoveries from the fields of developmental psychology and learning sciences, neurophysiology and brain sciences, movement sciences, and the dynamic field of developmental robotics, which has become a very active applied field relying on biologically inspired models. This volume is a rich and valuable resource for students and professionals in all of these research fields, as well as cognitive sciences, rehabilitation, and other applied sciences.

Visual Cortex and Deep Networks

Author: Tomaso A. Poggio
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034727
Format: PDF, ePub
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A mathematical framework that describes learning of invariant representations in the ventral stream, offering both theoretical development and applications.

How to Build a Brain

Author: Chris Eliasmith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199794693
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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How to Build a Brain provides a detailed exploration of a new cognitive architecture - the Semantic Pointer Architecture - that takes biological detail seriously, while addressing cognitive phenomena. Topics ranging from semantics and syntax, to neural coding and spike-timing-dependent plasticity are integrated to develop the world's largest functional brain model.