Biology and Conservation of Martens Sables and Fishers

Author: Keith B. Aubry
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801466091
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Mammals in the genus Martes are mid-sized carnivores of great importance to forest ecosystems. This book, the successor to Martens, Sables, and Fishers: Biology and Conservation, provides a scientific basis for management and conservation efforts designed to maintain or enhance the populations and habitats of Martes species throughout the world. The twenty synthesis chapters contained in this book bring together the perspectives and expertise of 63 scientists from twelve countries, and are organized by the five key themes of evolution and biogeography, population biology and management, habitat ecology and management, research techniques, and conservation. Recent developments in research technologies such as modeling and genetics, biological knowledge about pathogens and parasites, and concerns about the potential effects of global warming on the distribution and status of Martes populations make new syntheses of these areas especially timely. The volume provides an overview of what is known while clarifying initiatives for future research and conservation priorities, and will be of interest to mammalogists, resource managers, applied ecologists, and conservation biologists.

Carnivore Ecology and Conservation

Author: Luigi Boitani
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199558523
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Provides concise, yet authoritative descriptions of the most common techniques used to study wild carnivores and to conserve and manage their populations within increasingly human-dominated landscapes.

Biology and Conservation of Musteloids

Author: David W. Macdonald
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198759800
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The musteloids are the most diverse super-family among carnivores, ranging from little known, exotic, and highly-endangered species to the popular and familiar, and include a large number of introduced invasives. They feature terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, and aquatic members, ranging from tenacious predators to frugivorous omnivores, span weights from a 100g weasel to 30kg giant otters, and express a range of social behaviours from the highly gregarious to the fiercely solitary. Musteloids are the subjects of extensive cutting-edge research from phylogenetics to the evolution of sociality and through to the practical implications of disease epidemiology, introduced species management, and climate change. Their diversity and extensive biogeography inform a wide spectrum of ecological theory and conservation practice. The editors of this book have used their combined 90 years of experience working on the behaviour and ecology of wild musteloids to draw together a unique network of the world's most successful and knowledgeable experts. The book begins with nine review chapters covering hot topics in musteloid biology including evolution, disease, social communication, and management. These are followed by twenty extensive case studies providing a range of comprehensive geographic and taxonomic coverage. The final chapter synthesises what has been discussed in the book, and reflects on the different and diverse conservation needs of musteloids and the wealth of conservation lessons they offer. Biology and Conservation of Musteloids provides a conceptual framework for future research and applied conservation management that is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in musteloid and carnivore ecology and conservation biology. It will also be of relevance and use to conservationists and wildlife managers.

Freshwater Nematodes

Author: Eyualem Abebe
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 0851990096
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book contains 22 chapters on various aspects of freshwater nematode ecology and taxonomy. Subjects covered include the techniques for processing freshwater nematodes, the composition and distribution of free living freshwater nematodes, their abundance, biomass and diversity, the production of freshwater nematodes, their feeding ecology, patterns in size structure of freshwater nematode communities, different nematode habitats, and computation and application of nematode community indices. It provides descriptions with figures of each taxon at the genus level and above to currently valid genera. For every genus, a complete list of species, with an emphasis on biogeography, is given for primarily freshwater taxa and a list of only those species reported from freshwater bodies is given for the genera that are considered primarily non-freshwater. This book is intended to provide a useful reference to students, beginners and established researchers in the field of freshwater nematology, benthologists, invertebrate biologists, limnologists, ecologists, microbiologists and soil biologists.

Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores

Author: Robert A. Long
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 9781610911399
Format: PDF, Docs
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The status of many carnivore populations is of growing concern to scientists and conservationists, making the need for data pertaining to carnivore distribution, abundance, and habitat use ever more pressing. Recent developments in “noninvasive” research techniques—those that minimize disturbance to the animal being studied—have resulted in a greatly expanded toolbox for the wildlife practitioner. Presented in a straightforward and readable style, Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores is a comprehensive guide for wildlife researchers who seek to conduct carnivore surveys using the most up-to-date scientific approaches. Twenty-five experts from throughout North America discuss strategies for implementing surveys across a broad range of habitats, providing input on survey design, sample collection, DNA and endocrine analyses, and data analysis. Photographs from the field, line drawings, and detailed case studies further illustrate on-the-ground application of the survey methods discussed. Coupled with cutting-edge laboratory and statistical techniques, which are also described in the book, noninvasive survey methods are effi cient and effective tools for sampling carnivore populations. Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores allows practitioners to carefully evaluate a diversity of detection methods and to develop protocols specific to their survey objectives, study area, and species of interest. It is an essential resource for anyone interested in the study of carnivores, from scientists engaged in primary research to agencies or organizations requiring carnivore detection data to develop management or conservation plans.

Carnivore Conservation

Author: John L. Gittleman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521665377
Format: PDF, ePub
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Carnivores are the focus of intense attention and resources in conservation biology. It is often argued that, because carnivores are at the top of the food chain, if they are protected, then other taxa will also be afforded adequate protection. Carnivores are also charismatic and compete with humans for dwindling space and environmental resources. In the past 10 years, theoretical and empirical studies on carnivores have developed very quickly. This volume reviews and summarises the current state of the field, describes limitations and opportunities for carnivore conservation, and offers a conceptual framework for future research and applied management. As such it will be of interest to students and researchers of conservation biology, mammalogy, animal behaviour, ecology and evolution.

Tropical Peatland Ecosystems

Author: Mitsuru Osaki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431556818
Format: PDF
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This book is an excellent resource for scientists, political decision makers, and students interested in the impact of peatlands on climate change and ecosystem function, containing a plethora of recent research results such as monitoring-sensing-modeling for carbon–water flux/storage, biodiversity and peatland management in tropical regions. It is estimated that more than 23 million hectares (62 %) of the total global tropical peatland area are located in Southeast Asia, in lowland or coastal areas of East Sumatra, Kalimantan, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Brunei, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak and Southeast Thailand. Tropical peatland has a vital carbon–water storage function and is host to a huge diversity of plant and animal species. Peatland ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change and the impacts of human activities such as logging, drainage and conversion to agricultural land. In Southeast Asia, severe episodic droughts associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, in combination with over-drainage, forest degradation, and land-use changes, have caused widespread peatland fires and microbial peat oxidation. Indonesia's 20 Mha peatland area is estimated to include about 45–55 GtC of carbon stocks. As a result of land use and development, Indonesia is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases (2–3 Gtons carbon dioxide equivalent per year), 80 % of which is due to deforestation and peatland loss. Thus, tropical peatlands are key ecosystems in terms of the carbon–water cycle and climate change.

City of Forests City of Farms

Author: Lindsay K. Campbell
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501714708
Format: PDF, Kindle
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City of Forests, City of Farms is a history of recent urban forestry and agriculture policy and programs in New York City. Centered on the 2007 initiative PlaNYC, this account tracks the development of policies that increased sustainability efforts in the city and dedicated more than $400 million dollars to trees via the MillionTreesNYC campaign. Lindsay K. Campbell uses PlaNYC to consider how and why nature is constructed in New York City. Campbell regards sustainability planning as a process that unfolds through the strategic interplay of actors, the deployment of different narrative frames, and the mobilizing and manipulation of the physical environment, which affects nonhuman animals and plants as well as the city's residents. Campbell zeroes in on a core omission in PlaNYC's original conception and funding: Despite NYC having a long tradition of community gardening, particularly since the fiscal crisis of the 1970s, the plan contained no mention of community gardens or urban farms. Campbell charts the change of course that resulted from burgeoning public interest in urban agriculture and local food systems. She shows how civic groups and elected officials crafted a series of visions and plans for local food systems that informed the 2011 update to PlaNYC. City of Forests, City of Farms is a valuable tool that allows us to understand and disentangle the political decisions, popular narratives, and physical practices that shape city greening in New York City and elsewhere.

Activity Patterns in Small Mammals

Author: S. Halle
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 364218264X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Environmental conditions change considerably in the course of 24 h with respect to abiotic factors and intra- and interspecific interactions. These changes result in limited time windows of opportunity for animal activities and, hence, the question of when to do what is subject to fitness maximisation. This volume gives a current overview of theoretical considerations and empirical findings of activity patterns in small mammals, a group in which the energetic and ecological constraints are particularly severe and the diversity of activity patterns is particularly high. Following a comparative ecological approach, for the first time activity timing is consequently treated in terms of behavioural and evolutionary ecology, providing the conceptual framework for chronoecology as a new subdiscipline within behavioural ecology. An extensive Appendix gives an introduction to methods of activity modelling and to tools for statistical pattern analysis.