Biomathematics

Author: S. Andersson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080528076
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book presents new mathematics for the description of structure and dynamics in molecular and cellular biology. On an exponential scale it is possible to combine functions describing inner organisation, including finite periodicity, with functions for outside morphology into a complete definition of structure. This mathematics is particularly fruitful to apply at molecular and atomic distances. The structure descriptions can then be related to atomic and molecular forces and provide information on structural mechanisms. The calculations have been focussed on lipid membranes forming the surface layers of cell organelles. Calculated surfaces represent the mid-surface of the lipid bilayer. Membrane dynamics such as vesicle transport are described in this new language. Periodic membrane assemblies exhibit conformations based on the standing wave oscillations of the bilayer, considered to reflect the true dynamic nature of periodic membrane structures. As an illustration the structure of an endoplasmatic reticulum has been calculated. The transformation of such cell membrane assemblies into cubosomes seems to reflect a transition into vegetative states. The organisation of the lipid bilayer of nerve cells is analyzed, taking into account an earlier observed lipid bilayer phase transition associated with the depolarisation of the membrane. Evidence is given for a new structure of the alveolar surface, relating the mathematical surface defining the bilayer organisation to new experimental data. The surface layer is proposed to consist of a coherent phase, consisting of a lipid-protein bilayer curved according to a classical surface - the CLP surface. Without employing this new mathematics it would not be possible to give an analytical description of this structure and its deformation during the respiration cycle. In more general terms this mathematics is applied to the description of the structure and dynamic properties of motor proteins, cytoskeleton proteins, and RNA/DNA. On a macroscopic scale the motions of cilia, sperm and flagella are modelled. This mathematical description of biological structure and dynamics, biomathematics, also provides significant new information in order to understand the mechanisms governing shape of living organisms.

Using the Mathematics Literature

Author: Kristine K. Fowler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824750350
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This reference serves as a reader-friendly guide to every basic tool and skill required in the mathematical library and helps mathematicians find resources in any format in the mathematics literature. It lists a wide range of standard texts, journals, review articles, newsgroups, and Internet and database tools for every major subfield in mathematics and details methods of access to primary literature sources of new research, applications, results, and techniques. Using the Mathematics Literature is the most comprehensive and up-to-date resource on mathematics literature in both print and electronic formats, presenting time-saving strategies for retrieval of the latest information.

Lipid and Polymer Lipid Systems

Author: T. Nylander
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540452915
Format: PDF, ePub
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The renewed and increasing interest in lipid self-assembly, phase behaviour and interfacial properties can be related to both a much improved insight in biological systems and the applications of lipids in food and pharmaceutical industry; in the latter, the development of drug delivery systems based on lipids has become in focus. Amphiphilic systems comprise lipids, surfactants as well as different types of polymers, including block and graft copolymers. Research on biological amphiphiles has often been conducted separate from research on synthetic ones. However, in recent years a very fruitful convergence between the two fields has evolved. These new perspectives on fundamental research and applications of lipids are discussed in these proceedings from an international symposium on "Lipid and Polymer Lipid-systems", October 2000 in Chia Laguna in Italy - a joint undertaking of Prof. Maura Monduzzi at Cagliari University, Italy and Camurus Lipid Research Foundation, Lund, Sweden.

Skin Hair and Nails

Author: Bo Forslind
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824756665
Format: PDF
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Stressing a structure-function approach, this multidisciplinary reference presents a detailed overview of the biological, chemical, physical, molecular and genetic tools and techniques utilized in the study of the skin barrier.

Structure and dynamics of membranous interfaces

Author: Kaushik Nag
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Leading scientists review and explain the state of the science With chapters contributed by pioneers and leading scientists in the field, this carefullyedited work provides state-of-the-science reviews focusing on the structural and dynamic aspects of diverse membranous systems. In addition to learning the significanceof the latest discoveries in membranous systems, readers also learn the most advanced techniques used to study these complex systems. Moreover, the text brings together a tremendous array of both published and unpublished data, offering an unprecedented reference and resource to fuel further research. Integrating findings from computer science, biophysics, surface science, physical chemistry, nanotechnology, biochemistry, chemical engineering, materials science, and clinical physiology, this book offers a truly multidisciplinary perspective. Its fifteen chapters are organized into three main sections: * Membrane Structure, focusing on direct experimental studies to determine the polymorphic structures of model and natural membranous systems * Dynamics & Molecular Events at Membrane Interfaces, examining how membrane structures are formed and evolve into other superstructures * Complex Membranous Systems, exploring bacterial and neural membranes, lung surfactants, and other colloidal systems Structure and Dynamics of Membranous Interfaces offers researchers and students studying biomembranes a unique snapshot of what is known in the field, where additional research is needed, and where the field is heading. Furthermore, armed with a better understanding of membranous systems, readers are well positioned to make new advances in such areas as drug design, medicine, and environmental technologies.

The Nature of Mathematics and the Mathematics of Nature

Author: S. Andersson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080537344
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Chemistry, physics and biology are by their nature genuinely difficult. Mathematics, however, is man-made, and therefore not as complicated. Two ideas form the basis for this book: 1) to use ordinary mathematics to describe the simplicity in the structure of mathematics and 2) to develop new branches of mathematics to describe natural sciences. Mathematics can be described as the addition, subtraction or multiplication of planes. Using the exponential scale the authors show that the addition of planes gives the polyhedra, or any solid. The substraction of planes gives saddles. The multiplication of planes gives the general saddle equations and the multispirals. The equation of symmetry is derived, which contains the exponential scale with its functions for solids, the complex exponentials with the nodal surfaces, and the GD (Gauss Distribution) mathematics with finite periodicity. Piece by piece, the authors have found mathematical functions for the geometrical descriptions of chemical structures and the structure building operations. Using the mathematics for dilatation; twins, trillings, fourlings and sixlings are made, and using GD mathematics these are made periodic. This description of a structure is the nature of mathematics itself. Crystal structures and 3D mathematics are synonyms. Mathematics are used to describe rod packings, Olympic rings and defects in solids. Giant molecules such as cubosomes, the DNA double helix, and certain building blocks in protein structures are also described mathematically.