Biosecurity in the Global Age

Author: David Fidler
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804750295
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"The renewed threat of biological weapons highlights the importance of crafting policy responses informed by the rule of law. This book explores patterns in recent governance initiatives and advocates building a "global biosecurity concert" as a way to address the threats presented by biological weapons and infectious diseases in the early 21st century."--BOOK JACKET.

Regulating Risks in the European Union

Author: Maria Weimer
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509912665
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A growing body of EU law and regulation is preoccupied with the protection of EU citizens from health and environmental risks. Which chemicals are safe and should be allowed on the market? How should the EU respond to public health emergencies, such as Ebola and other infectious diseases? Regulatory responses to these questions confront deep uncertainty, limited knowledge and societal contestation. In a time where the use of scientific expertise in EU policy-making is particularly contested, this book offers a timely contribution to both the academic and policy debate on the role of specialised expertise in EU public decision-making on risk and technology as well as on its intertwinement with executive power. It draws on insights from law, governance, political sciences, and science and technology studies, bringing together leading scholars in this field. Contributions are drawn together by a shared theoretical perspective, namely by their use of co-production as an analytical lens to study the intricate interplay between techno-scientific expertise and EU executive power. By so doing, this collection produces highly original insights into the development of the EU administrative state, as well as into the role of regulatory science in its construction. This book will be useful to scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers working on risk regulation and the role of expertise in public decision-making.

Biosecurity Dilemmas

Author: Christian Enemark
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626164045
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Biosecurity Dilemmas examines conflicting values and interests in the practice of "biosecurity," the safeguarding of populations against infectious diseases through security policies. Biosecurity encompasses both the natural occurrence of deadly disease outbreaks and the use of biological weapons. Christian Enemark focuses on six dreaded diseases that governments and international organizations give high priority for research, regulation, surveillance, and rapid response: pandemic influenza, drug-resistant tuberculosis, smallpox, Ebola, plague, and anthrax. The book is organized around four ethical dilemmas that arise when fear causes these diseases to be framed in terms of national or international security: protect or proliferate, secure or stifle, remedy or overkill, and attention or neglect. For instance, will prioritizing research into defending against a rare event such as a bioterrorist attack divert funds away from research into commonly occurring diseases? Or will securitizing a particular disease actually stifle research progress owing to security classification measures? Enemark provides a comprehensive analysis of the ethics of securitizing disease and explores ideas and policy recommendations about biological arms control, global health security, and public health ethics.

Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism

Author: Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent the Destructive Application of Biotechnology
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309089778
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In recent years much has happened to justify an examination of biological research in light of national security concerns. The destructive application of biotechnology research includes activities such as spreading common pathogens or transforming them into even more lethal forms. Policymakers and the scientific community at large must put forth a vigorous and immediate response to this challenge. This new book by the National Research Council recommends that the government expand existing regulations and rely on self-governance by scientists rather than adopt intrusive new policies. One key recommendation of the report is that the government should not attempt to regulate scientific publishing but should trust scientists and journals to screen their papers for security risks, a task some journals have already taken up. With biological information and tools widely distributed, regulating only U.S. researchers would have little effect. A new International Forum on Biosecurity should encourage the adoption of similar measures around the world. Seven types of risky studies would require approval by the Institutional Biosafety Committees that already oversee recombinant DNA research at some 400 U.S. institutions. These "experiments of concern" include making an infectious agent more lethal and rendering vaccines powerless.

The New Biological Weapons

Author: Malcolm Dando
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub
ISBN: 9781555879242
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This study assesses how new technologies such as biotechnology and neuroscience can be used in weapons systems - by governments and terrorists alike. It surveys existing control mechanisms and explores whether this frightening development can be brought under effective international control.

Laboratory Biorisk Management

Author: Reynolds M. Salerno
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498749747
Format: PDF, ePub
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Over the past two decades bioscience facilities worldwide have experienced multiple safety and security incidents, including many notable incidents at so-called "sophisticated facilities" in North America and Western Europe. This demonstrates that a system based solely on biosafety levels and security regulations may not be sufficient. Setting the stage for a substantively different approach for managing the risks of working with biological agents in laboratories, Laboratory Biorisk Management: Biosafety and Biosecurity introduces the concept of biorisk management—a new paradigm that encompasses both laboratory biosafety and biosecurity. The book also provides laboratory managers and directors with the information and technical tools needed for its implementation. The basis for this new paradigm is a three-pronged, multi-disciplinary model of assessment, mitigation, and performance (the AMP model). The application of the methodologies, criteria, and guidance outlined in the book helps to reduce the risk of laboratories becoming the sources of infectious disease outbreaks. This is a valuable resource for those seeking to embrace and implement biorisk management systems in their facilities and operations, including the biological research, clinical diagnostic, and production/manufacturing communities.

Agents of Bioterrorism

Author: Geoffrey Zubay
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231518137
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This new work offers a clear and thorough account of the threats posed by bioterrorism from the perspective of biologists. The authors examine thirteen disease-causing agents, including those responsible for anthrax, the plague, smallpox, influenza, and SARS. Each chapter considers a particular pathogen from the standpoint of its history, molecular biology, pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, weaponization, and defenses. The book also examines strategies for making vaccines and protecting the population in a bioterror attack.

Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309457769
Format: PDF, Docs
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The 2014â€"2015 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and most deadly Ebola epidemic in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola virus has been known since 1976, when two separate outbreaks were identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) and South Sudan (then Sudan). However, because all Ebola outbreaks prior to that in West Africa in 2014â€"2015 were relatively isolated and of short duration, little was known about how to best manage patients to improve survival, and there were no approved therapeutics or vaccines. When the World Heath Organization declared the 2014-2015 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in August 2014, several teams began conducting formal clinical trials in the Ebola affected countries during the outbreak. Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience assesses the value of the clinical trials held during the 2014â€"2015 epidemic and makes recommendations about how the conduct of trials could be improved in the context of a future international emerging or re-emerging infectious disease events.