Black White and Indian

Author: Claudio Saunt
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195313109
Format: PDF, ePub
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"History professor Saunt examines the complicated history of race in America through five generations of a Native American family, the Graysons, whose long-denied descendants include African slaves. From 1780 to 1920, Saunt traces the Graysons and their interaction and intermixing with whites and blacks. At the center of this family saga is Katy Grayson, a Creek woman, who, along with her brother, had children with partners of African descent. Katy later married a Scottish-Creek man, disowned her black children, and became a slave owner. Her brother, William, stayed with his black wife and children, later emancipating them. In 1907, when Creeks were granted U.S. citizenship, state law split the family by defining some as black and some as white. The divergent paths of these families parallel the interactions among whites, blacks, and Indians as racial and social differences solidified through slavery and the mistreatment of Indians. This is a fascinating look at a seldom-recognized aspect of American race relations." -- Vernon Ford.

Recovering History Constructing Race

Author: Martha Menchaca
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292778481
Format: PDF, ePub
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The history of Mexican Americans is a history of the intermingling of races—Indian, White, and Black. This racial history underlies a legacy of racial discrimination against Mexican Americans and their Mexican ancestors that stretches from the Spanish conquest to current battles over ending affirmative action and other assistance programs for ethnic minorities. Asserting the centrality of race in Mexican American history, Martha Menchaca here offers the first interpretive racial history of Mexican Americans, focusing on racial foundations and race relations from prehispanic times to the present. Menchaca uses the concept of racialization to describe the process through which Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. authorities constructed racial status hierarchies that marginalized Mexicans of color and restricted their rights of land ownership. She traces this process from the Spanish colonial period and the introduction of slavery through racial laws affecting Mexican Americans into the late twentieth-century. This re-viewing of familiar history through the lens of race recovers Blacks as important historical actors, links Indians and the mission system in the Southwest to the Mexican American present, and reveals the legal and illegal means by which Mexican Americans lost their land grants.

Red Over Black

Author: R. Halliburton
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Appendix A presents interviews with ex-slaves "conducted during the 1930s."

Identity in Black and White

Author: Shae Ann Adams
Publisher:
ISBN:
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During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, thousands of American Indian children attended off-reservation boarding schools where administrators hoped to assimilate students into mainstream Anglo society. To achieve this goal, administrators forcefully changed the outward appearances of students while depriving them of their own languages and traditions. Postcards of these schools were sold to curious school outsiders. This thesis examines those postcards in relation to the myriad of student experiences within the framework [of] an online exhibition.

Black Indians

Author: William Loren Katz
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1442446374
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Traces the history of relations between blacks and American Indians, and the existence of black Indians, from the earliest foreign landings through pioneer days.

Making the White Man s Indian

Author: Angela Aleiss
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275983963
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Looks at the history of depictions and treatment of Native Americans in movies from the silent era through the present day.

Black Slaves Indian Masters

Author: Barbara Krauthamer
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469607115
Format: PDF, Docs
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From the late eighteenth century through the end of the Civil War, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians bought, sold, and owned Africans and African Americans as slaves, a fact that persisted after the tribes' removal from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this practice and marginalized free black people in the Indian nations well after the Civil War and slavery had ended. Through the end of the nineteenth century, ongoing conflicts among Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants in the two Indian nations without citizenship in either the Indian nations or the United States. In this groundbreaking study, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the history of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to reveal the centrality of Native American slaveholders and the black people they enslaved. Krauthamer's examination of slavery and emancipation highlights the ways Indian women's gender roles changed with the arrival of slavery and changed again after emancipation and reveals complex dynamics of race that shaped the lives of black people and Indians both before and after removal.

The Black Indian in American Literature

Author: K. Byars-Nichols
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137389184
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The first book-length study of the figure of the black Indian in American Literature, this project explores themes of nation, culture, and performativity. Moving from the Post-Independence period to the Contemporary era, Byars-Nichols re-centers a marginalized group challenges stereotypes and conventional ways of thinking about race and culture.

West Indian in the West

Author: Percy Hintzen
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814736005
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In dealing with the complex issues surrounding labor law, this volume analyzes the rapid, profound, and all - encompassing nature of change in the work place. The essays examine the politics of the modern working world and its relationship with the law. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, including articles from feminist and social justice theorists, this volume is a significant contribution to the worlds of law and industrial relations.

West Indian Immigrants

Author: Suzanne Model
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610444000
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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West Indian immigrants to the United States fare better than native-born African Americans on a wide array of economic measures, including labor force participation, earnings, and occupational prestige. Some researchers argue that the root of this difference lies in differing cultural attitudes toward work, while others maintain that white Americans favor West Indian blacks over African Americans, giving them an edge in the workforce. Still others hold that West Indians who emigrate to this country are more ambitious and talented than those they left behind. In West Indian Immigrants, sociologist Suzanne Model subjects these theories to close historical and empirical scrutiny to unravel the mystery of West Indian success. West Indian Immigrants draws on four decades of national census data, surveys of Caribbean emigrants around the world, and historical records dating back to the emergence of the slave trade. Model debunks the notion that growing up in an all-black society is an advantage by showing that immigrants from racially homogeneous and racially heterogeneous areas have identical economic outcomes. Weighing the evidence for white American favoritism, Model compares West Indian immigrants in New York, Toronto, London, and Amsterdam, and finds that, despite variation in the labor markets and ethnic composition of these cities, Caribbean immigrants in these four cities attain similar levels of economic success. Model also looks at “movers” and “stayers” from Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Guyana, and finds that emigrants leaving all four countries have more education and hold higher status jobs than those who remain. In this sense, West Indians immigrants are not so different from successful native-born African Americans who have moved within the U.S. to further their careers. Both West Indian immigrants and native-born African-American movers are the “best and the brightest”—they are more literate and hold better jobs than those who stay put. While political debates about the nature of black disadvantage in America have long fixated on West Indians’ relatively favorable economic position, this crucial finding reveals a fundamental flaw in the argument that West Indian success is proof of native-born blacks’ behavioral shortcomings. Proponents of this viewpoint have overlooked the critical role of immigrant self-selection. West Indian Immigrants is a sweeping historical narrative and definitive empirical analysis that promises to change the way we think about what it means to be a black American. Ultimately, Model shows that West Indians aren’t a black success story at all—rather, they are an immigrant success story.