Botanophilia in Eighteenth Century France

Author: R.L. Williams
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401598495
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The book describes the innovations that enabled botany, in the Eighteenth century, to emerge as an independent science, independent from medicine and herbalism. This encompassed the development of a reliable system for plant classification and the invention of a nomenclature that could be universally applied and understood. The key that enabled Linnaeus to devise his classification system was the discovery of the sexuality of plants. The book, which is intended for the educated general reader, proceeds to illustrate how many aspects of French life were permeated by this revolution in botany between about 1760 to 1815, a botanophilia sometimes inflated into botanomania. The reader should emerge with a clearer understanding of what the Enlightenment actually was in contrast to some popular second-hand ideas today.

Early Modern Natural Law Theories

Author: T. Hochstrasser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402015694
Format: PDF, Docs
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The study of natural law theories is presently one of the most fruitful areas of research in the studies of early modern intellectual history, and moral and political theory. Likewise the historical significance of the Enlightenment for the development of 'modernisation' in many different forms continues to be the subject of controversy. This collection therefore offers a timely opportunity to re-examine both the coherence of the concept of an 'early Enlightenment', and the specific contribution of natural law theories to its formation. The works of major thinkers such as Grotius, Hobbes, Locke, Malebranche, Pufendorf and Thomasius are reassessed, and the appeal and importance of the discourse of natural jurisprudence both to those working inside conventional educational and political structures and to those outside - such as in the Huguenot diaspora - is evaluated. This volume will therefore be of importance to all those readers concerned to study the character of the debates in the period 1650-1750 surrounding moral and political agency, sovereignty and obligation, and the legitimation of religious toleration in the divergent states and patriotic contexts of Europe.

Modernity and the Final Aim of History

Author: F. Tomasoni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402015946
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is intended for scholars and students in humanities, history, Jewish studies, philosophy, Christian theology, and for those concerned with the roots of anti-Semitism and with the need for toleration and intercultural pluralism. The book combines the development of German philosophy from the Enlightenment to Idealism, and from Idealism to the revolutionary turning-point of the mid-nineteenth century with the Jewish question.

A Rosicrucian Utopia in Eighteenth Century Russia

Author: Raffaella Faggionato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402034862
Format: PDF
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The author undertakes an investigation into the history of Russian Freemasonry that has not been attempted previously. Her premise is that the Russian Enlightenment shows peculiar features, which prevent the application of the interpretative framework commonly used for the history of western thought. The author deals with the development of early Russian masonry, the formation of the Novikov circle in Moscow, the ‘programme’ of Rosicrucianism and the character of its Russian variant and, finally, the clash between the Rosicrucians and the State. The author concludes that the defenders of the Ancien Régime were not wrong. In fact the democratic behaviour, the critical attitude, the practice of participation, the freedom of thought, the tolerance for the diversity, the search for a direct communication with the divinity, in short all the attitudes and behaviours first practiced inside the eighteenth century Rosicrucian lodges constituted a cultural experience which spread throughout the entire society. Novikov’s imprisonment in 1792 and the war against the Rosicrucian literature were attempts to thwart a culture, based on the independence of thought that was taking root inside the very establishment, representing a menace to its stability.

Cartesian Theodicy

Author: Z. Janowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402002571
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Almost all interpreters of Cartesian philosophy have hitherto focused on the epistemological aspect of Descartes' thought. In his Cartesian Theodicy, Janowski demonstrates that Descartes' epistemological problems are merely rearticulations of theological questions. For example, Descartes' attempt to define the role of God in man's cognitive fallibility is a reiteration of an old argument that points out the incongruity between the existence of God and evil, and his pivotal question `whence error?' is shown here to be a rephrasing of the question `whence evil?' The answer Descartes gives in the Meditations is actually a reformulation of the answer found in St. Augustine's De Libero Arbitrio and the Confessions. The influence of St. Augustine on Descartes can also be detected in the doctrine of eternal truths which, within the context of the 17th-century debates over the question of the nature of divine freedom, caused Descartes to ally himself with the Augustinian Oratorians against the Jesuits. Both in his Cartesian Theodicy as well as his Index Augustino-Cartesian, Textes et Commentaire Janowski shows that the entire Cartesian metaphysics can - and should - be read within the context of Augustinian thought.

Copp d Hills Towards Heaven Shakespeare and the Classical Polity

Author: Howard B. White
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789024702503
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The departmentalism of American universities has doubtless much to recommend it. It indicates that exuberance is not a sufficient sub stitute for scholarship, that, for better or for worse, every scholar today must be something of a specialist. But when any great writer and great thinker reaches out and grasps the whole of human life, the study of his work transcends specialization. And while exuberance may not replace scholarship, it may accompany it. Most of my work has been done in the history of political philosophy. I have dared to overstep departmental boundaries, because I believe that Shakespeare has something to say to political philosophy. I am not the first to express this view. Whether I express it well or badly, I shall not be the last. I want to thank Leo Strauss, my teacher. He has read the manus cript and given me the benefit of his insight and judgment. I want to thank Richard Kennington, who has taken so much time from his own work to comment meticulously and constructively on this work as on other things I have written. His help has been generous, and my appreciation is deep. I must, in particular, thank my colleague, Adolph Lowe. He has perused this study, much of it in several versions. Through long walks in Manchester, Vermont, we have discussed my work and his comments. Usually his comments have been compelling. I can regret only that I am completely unqualified to reciprocate.

Mandeville Studies

Author: I. Primer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789024716869
Format: PDF, Mobi
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For centuries readers have admired the writer who wields his pen like a sword - an Aristophanes, a Rabelais, a Montaigne, a Swift. Using ribaldry, satire and irony in varying proportions, such writers pierce the thick, comfortable hide of society and uncover, predictably, the corruption and hypocrisy that characterize the life of man in commercial society. Though a lesser talent than any of these literary giants, Bernard Mande ville is nevertheless a member of their class. The crucial year in the emergence of his reputation was 1723, the year in which he added his controversial Essay on Charity and Charity-Schools to his Fable of the Bees. From that point on he became one of the most reviled targets of the public guardians of morality and religion; for some he appeared to be truly the Devil incarnate, Mandevil, as Fielding and others spelled it. This reputation was attached to his name well into the nineteenth centu ry. In a diary entry for June 1812 Henry Crabb Robinson recorded the following conversation with the elderly Mrs. Buller: "She received me with a smile, and allowed me to touch her hand. 'What are you reading, Mr. Robinson?' she said. 'The wickedest cleverest book in the English language, if you chance to know it. ' - 'I have known the "Fable of the Bees" more than fifty years. ' She was right in her guess.

The Life of Henry More

Author: Richard Ward
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792360971
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Cambridge Platonist, Henry More (1614-1687), was a dominant figure on the 17th-century intellectual scene. His life spanned both the political revolutions of the English Civil War and its aftermath and the intellectual revolution in 17th-century science and philosophy. More was highly regarded in his own day as a metaphysician, although the combination of receptivity to the new (such as his admiration of Galileo, Descartes and Boyle) and defence of traditional thinking (notably his belief in witchcraft) makes him a difficult figure to assess today. The heterodoxy of his theological views notwithstanding, More was an important spokesman for moderation within the Anglican Church after the Restoration, and a key figure in the Latitudinarian movement.

Of Elephants Roses

Author: Sue Ann Prince
Publisher: Amer Philosophical Society
ISBN: 9780871692672
Format: PDF
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"Of Elephants and Roses: Encounters with French Natural History, 1790–1830 explores natural history in post-revolutionary France. Two grand gardens serve as the exhibition’s point of departure—the Paris Muséum of Natural History with its Jardin des Plantes, and Malmaison, the private garden of Empress Josephine, Napoleon’s wife. These two sites acclimatized plants and animals from all around the world, produced new scientific knowledge, improved agricultural productivity and diversity, helped promote economic prosperity, and contributed to the glory of France, even during a tumultuous political period that lurched from bloody revolution to new republic, to empire, and ultimately back to monarchy."---