Brazil and the United States

Author: Joseph Smith
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 9780820337333
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although Brazil and the United States have long regarded each other sympathetically, relations between the two countries have been adversely affected by geographical distance, language barriers, and cultural indifference. In this comprehensive overview, Joseph Smith examines the history of Brazil-U.S. relations from the early nineteenth century to the present day. With the exception of commerce, notably the coffee trade, there was relatively little contact between the countries during the nineteenth century. A convergence of national interests took place during the first decade of the twentieth century and was exemplified in Brazil's strategy of "approximating" its foreign policy to that pursued by the United States. In return, Brazil expected economic gains and diplomatic support for its ambition to be the leading power in South America. But U.S. leaders were cautious and self-serving. Brazil was treated as a special ally, according to Smith, but only at times of major crisis such as the two world wars. As the twentieth century progressed, friction developed over programs of U.S. financial assistance and efforts to deal with the threat of communism. Recently there have been disagreements over Brazil's determination to take its rightful place as a global economic player and regional leader. Nonetheless history reveals that these two giant nations of the Western Hemisphere share national interests that they realize are best served by maintaining a friendly, cooperative relationship.

Brazil the United States and the South American Subsystem

Author: Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixeira
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739173286
Format: PDF, Docs
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In Brazil, the United States, and the South American Subsystem: Regional Politics and the Absent Empire, Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixeira challenges several typical assumptions on U.S.-Latin American relations, beginning by questioning the very usefulness of the concept of Latin America for the field of international relations. Instead of concentrating upon the instances when the United States pursued imperial policies in Latin America, this study seeks to explain the instances when it did not. Teixeira accomplishes this by shifting the focus of the research from the United States to Brazil and the regional dynamics of South America. Brazil, the United States, and the South American Subsystem is a unique investigation of how Brazil has been a status quo power in the region, increasing the benefits of limited U.S. involvement in South American affairs.

Uneven Encounters

Author: Micol Seigel
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822392178
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In Uneven Encounters, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back and forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation for both elites and non-elites are constructed together, and driven by global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of themselves as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far from home but who nonetheless absorbed ideas from abroad. She suggests that studies comparing U.S. and Brazilian racial identities as two distinct constructions are misconceived. Racial formation transcends national borders; attempts to understand it must do the same.

Envisioning Brazil

Author: Marshall C. Eakin
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 9780299207700
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Envisioning Brazil is a comprehensive and sweeping assessment of Brazilian studies in the United States. Focusing on synthesis and interpretation and assessing trends and perspectives, this reference work provides an overview of the writings on Brazil by United States scholars since 1945. "The Development of Brazilian Studies in the United States," provides an overview of Brazilian Studies in North American universities. "Perspectives from the Disciplines" surveys the various academic disciplines that cultivate Brazilian studies: Portuguese language studies, Brazilian literature, art, music, history, anthropology, Amazonian ethnology, economics, politics, and sociology. "Counterpoints: Brazilian Studies in Britain and France" places the contributions of U.S. scholars in an international perspective. "Bibliographic and Reference Sources" offers a chronology of key publications, an essay on the impact of the digital age on Brazilian sources, and a selective bibliography.

Energy Bio Fuels and Development

Author: Edmund Amann
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136846220
Format: PDF, Docs
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This collection examines the important and topical issue of the economic, social and environmental implications of concerted attempts to diversify energy sources away from fossil fuels. The book expertly examines this issue by focussing on the contrasting experiences of two major economies; one developed, and the other a rapidly expanding, emerging market. Energy, Bio Fuels and Development evaluates the experience of Brazil, with elements of that of the US highlighted for the purpose of comparison. A key area of concern surrounds the causes and consequences of the contrasting routes to biofuel production represented by sugar cane (in Brazil) and corn (in the US). The book also places the recent biofuels drive in perspective by discussing the broader energy policy context. The book shows the complexity and interdependence of the issues involved in moving a society reliant on non-renewable energy sources to one based on alternative sources of energy. The key conclusion to emerge is that Brazil, in pursuing a flexible mix of fossil fuels and bio-fuels, has greatly diminished its exposure to exogenous energy shocks. The US experience – in particular its development of corn-based ethanol – has been more problematic, though by no means without successes. It is argued that bio fuels should not be seen as a panacea. There are clear limits to the efficiency and cost effectiveness of current biofuel production technologies while there remain concerns surrounding potentially adverse effects on food production and rural livelihoods. This book should be an excellent resource for students focussing on economic development, particularly in the areas of energy, biofuels, rural development and food supply.

Trade and Gunboats

Author: Steven C. Topik
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804740180
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A hundred years ago, the United States first projected itself onto the international stage, hoping to stake out a sphere of influence in Latin America just as the largest of Latin American countries, Brazil, ending a 67-year-long monarchical regime, struggled to redefine its relationship to the world economy. Debates raged between liberals and corporatists, between free traders and protectionists. When the trajectories of these two unequal giants collided, their interaction revealed much about the international economic and political affairs of their day that bears upon the debates surrounding today’s "new world order.” The book begins by examining the Blaine-Mendonca Accord of 1891, the first commercial pact ever signed between Brazil and the United States, thus beginning a special relationship that lasted into the 1970’s. This is the first study of U.S.-Brazilian relations that seriously examines the internal politics and economics of both countries and how they played themselves out in the late nineteenth century. The author attempts a new kind of international history, comparative political economy, that examines not only internal dynamics but also the nature of the international regime at the time.