Breast Cancer Screening

Author: Nehmat Houssami
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128024941
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Breast Cancer Screening: Making Sense of Complex and Evolving Evidence covers broad aspects of breast cancer screening specifically focusing on current evidence, emerging evidence, and issues that will be critical for future breast screening practice such as tailored screening and shared decision-making in breast screening. The scope of the book is relevant to a global audience. This book provides balanced perspectives on this increasingly controversial topic, using scientific evidence to explain the evolution of knowledge relating to breast cancer screening. Breast Cancer Screening covers the key points related to this debate including the context of increasingly complex and conflicting evidence, divergent opinions on the benefits and harms of breast screening, and variability in screening practice and outcomes across settings around the world. Explains complex and evolving evidence on breast screening with a balanced approach Provides balanced information and up-to-date evidence in an increasingly complex area Addresses emerging topical issues such as screening trials of digital breast tomosynthesis, tailored breast screening, and shared decision-making in breast screening Assists academics and researchers in identifying areas needing further research

Evolution in Health and Disease

Author: Stephen C. Stearns
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199207466
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
In this fully revised and updated edition, the editors have integrated a completely new set of contributions from the leading researchers in the field to describe the latest research in evolutionary medicine, providing a fresh summary of this rapidly expanding field 10 years after its predecessor was first compiled. It continues to adopt a broad approach to the subject, drawing on medically relevant research from evolutionary genetics, human behavioural ecology, evolutionary microbiology (especially experimental evolution of virulence and resistance), the evolution of aging and degenerative disease, and other aspects of biology or medicine where evolutionary approaches make important contributions. Evolution in Health and Disease describes how evolutionary thinking gives valuable insights and fresh perspectives into human health and disease, establishing evolutionary biology as an essential complementary science for medicine. Integrating evolutionary thought into medical research and practice helps to explain the origins of many medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, asthma, allergies, other autoimmune diseases, and aging. It also provides life-saving insights into the evolutionary responses of pathogens to antibiotics, vaccinations, and other human interventions. Why do we grow old? How can we stay healthy as we age? The book discusses these and many other fascinating questions, as well as suggesting exciting possibilities for future treatment and research. This research level text is suitable for graduate level students and researchers in the fields of evolutionary (Darwinian) medicine, evolutionary biology, anthropology, developmental biology and genetics. It will also be of relevance and use to medical researchers and doctors.

Meeting Psychosocial Needs of Women with Breast Cancer

Author: National Cancer Policy Board
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309091292
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
In Meeting Psychosocial Needs of Women with Breast Cancer, the National Cancer Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine examines the psychosocial consequences of the cancer experience. The book focuses specifically on breast cancer in women because this group has the largest survivor population (over 2 million) and this disease is the most extensively studied cancer from the standpoint of psychosocial effects. The book characterizes the psychosocial consequences of a diagnosis of breast cancer, describes psychosocial services and how they are delivered, and evaluates their effectiveness. It assesses the status of professional education and training and applied clinical and health services research and proposes policies to improve the quality of care and quality of life for women with breast cancer and their families. Because cancer of the breast is likely a good model for cancer at other sites, recommendations for this cancer should be applicable to the psychosocial care provided generally to individuals with cancer. For breast cancer, and indeed probably for any cancer, the report finds that psychosocial services can provide significant benefits in quality of life and success in coping with serious and life-threatening disease for patients and their families.

Screening

Author: Angela E Raffle
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199214495
Format: PDF
Download Now
Screening is the routine testing of populations to identify individuals who may have a particular medical condition or disease. This book covers the theory and evidence behind screening, and serves as a practical, non-technical introduction to the subject, for public health practitioners involved in all aspects of screening.

Evolution of Infectious Disease

Author: Paul W. Ewald
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195345193
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Findings from the field of evolutionary biology are yielding dramatic insights for health scientists, especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these insights. In detailing why the pathogens that cause malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, and AIDS have their special kinds of deadliness, the book shows how efforts to control virtually all diseases would benefit from a more thorough application of evolutionary principles. When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism driven by evolutionary pressures to pass on as many copies of itself as possible. In this context, so-called "cultural vectors"--those aspects of human behavior and the human environment that allow spread of disease from immobilized people--become more important than ever. Interventions to control diseases don't simply hinder their spread but can cause pathogens and the diseases they engender to evolve into more benign forms. In fact, the union of health science with evolutionary biology offers an entirely new dimension to policy making, as the possibility of determining the future course of many diseases becomes a reality. By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a genuine milestone in the synthesis of health science, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. Written in a clear, accessible style, it is intended for a wide readership among professionals in these fields and general readers interested in science and health.

Pink Ribbon Blues

Author: Gayle A. Sulik
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199749930
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Medical sociologist Gayle A. Sulik reveals the hidden costs of the pink ribbon as an industry, one in which breast cancer functions as a brand name with a pink ribbon logo. Based on historical and ethnographic research, analysis of awareness campaigns and advertisements, and hundreds of interviews, Pink Ribbon Blues shows that while millions walk, run, and purchase products for a cure, cancer rates continue to rise, industry thrives, and breast cancer is stigmatized anew for those who reject the pink ribbon model. Even as Sulik points out the flaws of "pink ribbon culture," she outlines the positives and offers alternatives. The paperback includes a new Introduction investigating Susan G. Komen for the Cure and a color insert with images of, and reactions to, the pinking of breast cancer.

Mammography Screening

Author: Peter C. Gøtzsche
Publisher: Radcliffe Press
ISBN: 9781846195853
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The most effective way to decrease women's risk of becoming a breast cancer patient is to avoid attending screening. Mammography screening is one of the greatest controversies in healthcare, and the extent to which some scientists have sacrificed sound scientific principles in order to arrive at politically acceptable results in their research is extraordinary. In contrast, neutral observers increasingly find that the benefit has been much oversold and that the harms are much greater than previously believed. This groundbreaking book takes an evidence-based, critical look at the scientific disputes and the information provided to women by governments and cancer charities. It also explains why mammography screening is unlikely to be effective today. All health professionals and members of the public will find these revelations disturbingly illuminating. It will radically transform the way healthcare policy makers view mammography screening in the future.

Mammography and Beyond

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309171311
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Each year more than 180,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in women in the U.S. If cancer is detected when small and local, treatment options are less dangerous, intrusive, and costly-and more likely to lead to a cure. Yet those simple facts belie the complexity of developing and disseminating acceptable techniques for breast cancer diagnosis. Even the most exciting new technologies remain clouded with uncertainty. Mammography and Beyond provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on the state of breast cancer screening and diagnosis and recommends steps for developing the most reliable breast cancer detection methods possible. This book reviews the dramatic expansion of breast cancer awareness and screening, examining the capabilities and limitations of current and emerging technologies for breast cancer detection and their effectiveness at actually reducing deaths. The committee discusses issues including national policy toward breast cancer detection, roles of public and private agencies, problems in determining the success of a technique, availability of detection methods to specific populations of women, women's experience during the detection process, cost-benefit analyses, and more. Examining current practices and specifying research and other needs, Mammography and Beyond will be an indispensable resource to policy makers, public health officials, medical practitioners, researchers, women's health advocates, and concerned women and their families.

Rehabilitation Medicine Core Competencies Curriculum

Author: Adrian Cristian
Publisher: Demos Medical Publishing
ISBN: 1936287838
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
" Built around the six core competencies for physicians practicing rehabilitation medicine as required by the ACGME, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Patient-Centered Care: Mastering the Competencies is a unique, self-directed text for residents. Covering all aspects of patient-centered care in the practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation, the book provides a competency-based approach to topics and conditions commonly encountered in this specialty. Thoughtfully organized chapters offer easy-to-access clinical content for all major practice areas, and the bookís competency-based goals and objectives also serve as a clear platform for educating physiatrists in training during their clinical rotations. The first part of the book presents the foundations of the core competencies (medical knowledge, professionalism, patient care, practice-based learning and improvement, system-based practice, and interpersonal and communication skills) with basic principles for application, and also includes chapters on implementing educational milestones, core professional education principles, and building leadership skills. In the second part, experts in the field apply these core competencies to the management of common conditions including stroke, spinal cord and brain injury, amputation and prosthetics, musculoskeletal disorders, multiple sclerosis, and much more. Each of these chapters identifies goals and objectives for each competency and concludes with a representative case study and self-assessment questions with answers and explanations. The book also provides references to key articles and links to internet-based educational materials. Practical tips, how-to and where-to guides, key points, tables, and charts also help to maintain current knowledge and competency in the many areas that comprise the field of PM&R. The book will be a valuable asset to physiatrists in training, program directors, and teaching faculty in rehabilitation medicine training programs, and for continuing professional development. Key Features: ? Addresses core competencies for rehabilitation medicine physicians as required by the ACGME ? Covers all major physiatric practice areas with facts, concepts, goals, and objectives following the competency model ? Grounded in a holistic, patient-centered approach ? Presents sample case studies with discussion points and self-assessment questions with answer key and explanations for each area to track progress and build clinical acumen "

Improving Breast Imaging Quality Standards

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309165112
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Mammography is an important tool for detecting breast cancer at an early stage. When coupled with appropriate treatment, early detection can reduce breast cancer mortality. At the request of Congress, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned a study to examine the current practice of mammography and breast cancer detection, with a focus on the FDA’s oversight via the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), to identify areas in need of improvement. Enacted in 1993, MQSA provides a general framework for ensuring national quality standards in facilities performing screening mammography, requires that each mammography facility be accredited and certified, and mandates that facilities will undergo annual inspections. This book recommends strategies for achieving continued progress in assuring mammography quality, including changes to MQSA regulation, as well as approaches that do not fall within the purview of MQSA. Specifically, this book provides recommendations aimed at improving mammography interpretation; revising MQSA regulations, inspections, and enforcement; ensuring an adequate workforce for breast cancer screening and diagnosis; and improving breast imaging quality beyond mammography.