Breathing Clean

Author: Masami Kojima
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821350409
Format: PDF
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Because evidence that shows that diesel fumes are more toxic than was previously thought, there has been increased interest in the use of natural gas for vehicles operating in cities. Transit buses, traditionally fueled by diesel, are one of the cheapest forms of mass transit. They are also significant polluters and typically operate in heavily congested urban areas, where significant air pollution problems exist. The report provides an overview of the issues that must be considered when evaluating natural gas an alternative to diesel for use in transit buses.

Market Based Instruments

Author: Larry Kreiser
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1782548726
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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ŠThis book contains an impressive collection of papers discussing various aspects of the application of different market based instruments for environmental and climate policy. It covers questions related to the conceptualisation of environmental taxat

Historical Dictionary of the World Bank

Author: Sarah Tenney
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 0810878658
Format: PDF, ePub
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This second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the World Bank shows the substantial progress the Bank has made, this mainly through the dictionary section with concise entries on its component institutions, related organizations, its achievements in various fields, some of the major projects and member countries, and its various presidents. The introduction explains how the Bank works while the chronology traces the major events over nearly 70 years. Meanwhile, the list of acronyms reminds us just who the main players are. And the bibliography directs readers to useful internal documentation and outside studies.


Author: International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher: Intl Atomic Energy Agency
ISBN: 9789201049063
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This publication is the product of an international effort to develop a novel approach for the comprehensive assessment of national energy systems within a sustainable development context. The study represents the first of a series of national studies being conducted through a partnership initiative under the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The study comprises a quantitative and qualitative analysis of Brazil's energy needs, supply and security; domestic resources; technology development and innovation; and alternative future scenarios taking into consideration sustainable development criteria and goals defined by Brazilian experts. Social, economic and environmental issues and trends are examined in detail using statistical analysis of historical data, integrated demand and supply modelling systems and Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development. The quantitative assessment is complemented by discussions of major institutional and infrastructural considerations. The report summarizes the analyses, identifies major energy priority areas for Brazil and explores policy options useful to decision makers and specialists in energy and the environment.


Author: Marcelo Giugale
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821353486
Format: PDF, Docs
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Recent political changes in Colombia have opened up possibilities to think beyond the long-standing conflict and violence to promote a development agenda, based upon economic growth, social welfare and environmental protection. This publication contains various policy papers which seek to contribute to the national debate on options to address these development challenges. The book is intended to provide the incoming Colombian presidential administration with a comprehensive policy discussion regarding the country's development agenda.

District Energy Trends Issues and Opportunities

Author: Carolyn Gochenour
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821349113
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This report evaluates the history and development of district heating and district cooling, together referred to as district energy, in North America, Western Europe, Asia, Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. It reviews the key institutional, economic, financial, technical, and environmental issues in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union in order to arrive at operationally relevant issues as well as to define opportunities for new activities to be supported by the World Bank.

Cleaning Pakistan s Air

Author: Ernesto Sánchez-Triana
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 146480236X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The extent of urban air pollution in Pakistan—South Asia's most urbanized country—is among the world’s most severe, significantly damaging human health, quality of life, and the economy and environment of Pakistan. The harm from Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the highest in South Asia, exceeding several high-profile causes of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. Improved air quality management (AQM) in Pakistan can have notable economic and health benefits. For example, the estimated health benefits per dollar spent on cleaner diesel are approximately US $1–1.5 for light-duty diesel vehicles and US $1.5–2.4 for large buses and trucks. This report advocates that Pakistan allocate resources to AQM, because its air quality is severely affecting millions of Pakistanis, and because experiences around the world indicate that interventions can significantly improve air quality. This report details a broad spectrum of research on Pakistan’s AQM challenges, and identifies a comprehensive set of steps to improve air quality. The research presented here underpins the conclusions that addressing Pakistan's urban air pollution requires coordinated interventions to strengthen AQM, build agencies' institutional capacity, bolster AQM's legal and regulatory framework, implement policy reforms and investments, and fill knowledge gaps. However, Pakistan's policy makers face major obstacles, including limited financial, human, and technical resources, and can pursue only a few AQM interventions at the same time. In the short term, Pakistan's AQM should give highest priority to reducing pollutants linked to high morbidity and mortality: PM2.5 (and precursors like SOx and NOx) from mobile sources. A second-level short-term priority could be PM2.5, SOx, and emissions of toxic metals from stationary sources. An important medium-term priority should be mass transportation in major cities, controlling traffic, and restricting private cars during high-pollution episodes. A long-term priority could be taxing hydrocarbons, based on their contribution to greenhouse gases.