C Type Lectin Receptors in Immunity

Author: Sho Yamasaki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431560157
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The book presents the latest findings on C-type lectin receptors, focusing on individual receptors and their signaling. In recent years there have been great advances in the understanding of the function of these receptors as a newly emerging family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Comprising four parts: ITAM-coupled Activating Receptors; HemITAM-bearing Receptors; ITIM-bearing Receptors; and Other Receptors and Related Topics, this comprehensive review covers a broad range of C-type lectin receptors. The updated information on C-type lectin receptors and their ligands provided will appeal to a wide readership, from basic immunologists to physicians and surgeons. In addition, sections on novel drug development make this a valuable resource for pharmaceutical scientists.

Immune Transcriptome Reveals the Mincle C type Lectin Receptor Acts as a Partial Replacement for TLR4 in Lipopolysaccharide mediated Inflammatory Response in Barramundi Lates Calcarifer

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ISBN:
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Highlights: 163, 661 transcripts were generated in pronephros and spleen transcriptomes from barramundi ( Lates calcarifer ) immunised with LPS and peptidoglycan. TLR4, responsible for LPS recognition, was not transcribed in either organ. LPS at high doses induced transcriptional changes in TNF-alpha and IL-6 in barramundi leucocytes in a dose-dependent manner. TNF-alpha but not IL-6 was regulated through the Mincle pathway, thus Mincle acts as a partial substitute for TLR4 in barramundi in the processing of LPS. Abstract: Fish represent the most diverse and abundant extant vertebrate infraclass. They are also one of the earliest divergent phyla with adaptive immunity based on antigen recognition by MHC and immunoglobulin. The aquaculture industry, which currently provides more than half of the fish for human consumption globally, has successfully exploited the adaptive immune system of fish through mass vaccination programs. However, vaccination against highly diverse antigens, mostly carbohydrates, such as capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is challenging. Fish have a subdued innate response to LPS, but adaptive response is generally high and type-specific. To better understand the link between initial innate response and early onset of adaptive immunity to carbohydrate antigens in the perciform barramundi ( Lates calcarifer ), an immune transcriptome was prepared from pronephros and spleen following vaccination with LPS and peptidoglycan. From 163, 661 transcripts derived by Illumina mRNA-Seq, most grouped in neuronal, endocrine or immune system categories, suggesting a close relationship between the three systems. Moreover, digestive enzyme transcripts in spleen appeared to be highly inducible in barramundi. Most of the known TLRs were transcribed in the barramundi spleen and HK transcriptome, with the notable exception of TLR4, which is primarily responsible for LPS recognition in mammals. Several C-type lectin receptors were also identified, including CD209, CD205, and CLEC4E (Mincle). As Mincle has been shown to bind LPS and is abundant on dendritic cells, its role in response to LPS in barramundi was further investigated. A high dose of LPS induced TNF-alpha expression via Mincle. However, IL-6 regulation, whilst still regulated in response to LPS, did not depend upon the Mincle pathway, suggesting other routes of activation. This study thus suggests that Mincle acts as a partial substitute for TLR4 in barramundi in the processing of LPS.

Pattern Recognition Receptors and Cancer

Author: Anton G. Kutikhin
Publisher:
ISBN: 2889196747
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) includes families of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and AIM-2-like receptors (ALRs). Conceptually, receptors constituting these families are united by two general features. Firstly, they directly recognize common antigen determinants of virtually all classes of pathogens (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or simply PAMPs) and initiate immune response against them via specific intracellular signaling pathways. Secondly, they recognize endogenous ligands (since they are usually released during cell stress, they are called damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs), and, hence, PRR-mediated immune response can be activated without an influence of infectious agents. So, pattern recognition receptors play the key role performing the innate and adaptive immune response. In addition, many PRRs have a number of other vital functions apart from participation in immune response realization. The fundamental character and diversity of PRR functions have led to amazingly rapid research in this field. Such investigations are very promising for medicine as immune system plays a key role in vast majority if not all human diseases, and the process of discovering the new aspects of the immune system functioning is rapidly ongoing. The role of Toll-like receptors in cancer was analyzed in certain reviews but the data are still scattered. This collection of reviews systematizes the key information in the field.

Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity

Author: Uday Kishore
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441909015
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events. The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids—and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q—to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms—to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells. In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system—and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.

HIV Glycans in Infection and Immunity

Author: Ralph Pantophlet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461488729
Format: PDF, ePub
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Glycosylation is a common and extremely important modification in biological molecules, particularly of proteins. HIV Glycans in Infection and Immunity provides an overview of the roles of glycans in the transmission/infection, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of HIV and the HIV envelope glycoprotein.​ It explores recent advances in the understanding of the impact of HIV glycans in infection and their promise for immunological and therapeutic intervention. Novel collaborations between glycobiologists and immunologists in recent years have led to key advances in the understanding of HIV glycans. These cross-disciplinary endeavors, their achievements and their impact on the field are all addressed, herein.

Genomics and computational science for virus research

Author: Hironori Sato
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889191265
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A biologically striking and clinically important feature of viruses is their rapid evolutionary dynamics in nature. The continual interactions between viruses and host organisms promote quick changes in virus populations, eventually leading to co-evolution of viruses and hosts for their survival. The structural and functional information on the interactions between viruses and hosts should provide a molecular and biological basis to understand infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and direction of evolution of viruses. The information is also essential to develop methods to control transmission and replication of pathogenic viruses. However, the integrated information on the structure, function, and evolution of viruses and hosts has remained poorly accumulated, partly due to the limitation of analytical methods. Recent progress in genome science and computational approach may open up a new avenue of research of the interactions between viruses and hosts by integrating information on the structures, functions, and evolution. In this Research Topic, we welcome papers concerning the computer-assisted structural and functional studies based on genomic information, with theoretical or in combination with experimental approaches, for understanding molecules, infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and evolution of viruses in nature.

Vaccinology

Author: Gregg N. Milligan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111863652X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Vaccinology: An Essential Guide outlines in a clear, practical format the entire vaccine development process, from conceptualization and basic immunological principles through to clinical testing and licensing of vaccines. With an outstanding introduction to the history and practice of vaccinology, it also guides the reader through the basic science relating to host immune responses to pathogens. Covering the safety, regulatory, ethical, and economic and geographical issues that drive vaccine development and trials, it also presents vaccine delivery strategies, novel vaccine platforms (including experimental vaccines and pathogens), antigen development and selection, vaccine modelling, and the development of vaccines against emerging pathogens and agents of bioterror. There are also sections devoted to veterinary vaccines and associated regulatory processes. Vaccinology: An Essential Guide is a perfect tool for designed for undergraduate and graduate microbiologists and immunologists, as well as residents, fellows and trainees of infectious disease and vaccinology. It is also suitable for all those involved in designing and conducting clinical vaccine trials, and is the ideal companion to the larger reference book Vaccinology: Principles and Practice.

Veterinary Immunology E Book

Author: Ian R. Tizard
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323291694
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The only complete resource on immunology for veterinary students and practitioners, Veterinary Immunology: An Introduction features a straightforward presentation of basic immunologic principles with comprehensive information on the most significant immunological diseases and responses seen in domestic animals. This meticulously updated new edition explores the latest advances in the field and provides a wealth of clinical examples that illustrate and clarify important concepts. Comprehensive coverage of vaccines and vaccine usage, allergies and allergic diseases, and autoimmunity and immunodeficiencies, prepare you for the multiple immunologic issues you will encounter in practice. A wealth of clinical examples clearly illustrate key concepts and offer practical strategies for diagnosing and treating immunologic disorders in the clinical setting. More than 500 full-color diagrams and illustrations visually demonstrate and clarify complex issues. Completely updated section on innate immunity includes new chapters on natural killer (NK) cells and systemic responses to infection to ensure you have the most up-to-date information. New information on genomics and molecular diagnostic techniques explores how the emerging field of genomics impacts disease resistance and immunology in general, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of immunological and infectious diseases. Updated content provides new information on well-recognized older diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as current information on new diseases such as devil facial tumor disease and bovine neonatal pancytopenia. Expanded coverage brings you the latest knowledge on resistance to infection, such as vaccine usage, especially with respect to duration of immunity, the effects of key vitamins and lipids on immune responses, the effects of old age on immunity, and both antiviral and parasitic immunity. Diagnostic tests described throughout the text include a new section on the analysis of ELISA test data, as well as a brief summary of molecular diagnostic techniques. Coverage reflecting a significant change in the overall view of immunology provides you with the foundational knowledge needed to grasp the broad pattern of immunologic reactions and understand how the immune system functions as an interconnected network, rather than a series of independent pathways. New discussions of the critical importance of commensal bacteria and intestinal flora explain help you understand the importance of this normal flora with respect to antibacterial immunity, allergies, and autoimmunity, while at the same time providing a broader view of the animal body and its microflora as a "superorganism." A discussion of the importance of adipose tissue in immunity and inflammation addresses the epidemic of obesity in domestic pets and the extraordinary growth rates expected of domestic livestock. The section on inflammatory mechanisms has been divided into separate chapters focusing on the detection of invaders and the mediators of inflammation to incorporate the vast amount of new information on pattern recognition receptors and the ways in which they warn the body of microbial invasion.