Calculating Promises

Author: Roy Kreitner
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804768054
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is a history of American contract law around the turn of the twentieth century. It meticulously details shifts in our conception of contract by juxtaposing scholarly accounts of contract with case law, and shows how the cases exhibit conflicts for which scholarship offers just one of many possible answers. Breaking with conventional wisdom, the author argues that our current understanding of contract is not the outgrowth of gradual refinements of a centuries-old idea. Rather, contract as we now know it was shaped by a revolution in private law undertaken toward the end of the nineteenth century, when legal scholars established calculating promisors as the centerpiece of their notion of contract. The author maintains that the revolution in contract thinking is best understood in a frame of reference wider than the rules governing the formation and enforcement of contracts. That frame of reference is a cultural negotiation over the nature of the individual subject and the role of the individual in a society undergoing transformation. Areas of central concern include the enforceability of promises to make gifts; the relationship of contracts to speculation and gambling; and the problem of incomplete contracts.

Liberalizing Contracts

Author: Anat Rosenberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317410491
Format: PDF
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In Liberalizing Contracts Anat Rosenberg examines nineteenth-century liberal thought in England, as developed through, and as it developed, the concept of contract, understood as the formal legal category of binding agreement, and the relations and human practices at which it gestured, most basically that of promise, most broadly the capitalist market order. She does so by placing canonical realist novels in conversation with legal-historical knowledge about Victorian contracts. Rosenberg argues that current understandings of the liberal effort in contracts need reconstructing from both ends of Henry Maine's famed aphorism, which described a historical progress "from status to contract." On the side of contract, historical accounts of its liberal content have been oscillating between atomism and social-collective approaches, missing out on forms of relationality in Victorian liberal conceptualizations of contracts which the book establishes in their complexity, richness, and wavering appeal. On the side of status, the expectation of a move "from status" has led to a split along the liberal/radical fault line among those assessing liberalism's historical commitment to promote mobility and equality. The split misses out on the possibility that liberalism functioned as a historical reinterpretation of statuses – particularly gender and class – rather than either an effort of their elimination or preservation. As Rosenberg shows, that reinterpretation effectively secured, yet also altered, gender and class hierarchies. There is no teleology to such an account.?

Speech and Silence in American Law

Author: Austin Sarat
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139487736
Format: PDF
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Rather than abstract philosophical discussion or yet another analysis of legal doctrine, Speech and Silence in American Law seeks to situate speech and silence, locating them in particular circumstances and contexts and asking how context matters in facilitating speech or demanding silence. To understand speech and silence we have to inquire into their social life and examine the occasions and practices that call them forth and that give them meaning. Among the questions addressed in this book are: who is authorized to speak? And what are the conditions that should be attached to the speaking subject? Are there occasions that call for speech and others that demand silence? What is the relationship between the speech act and the speaker? Taking these questions into account helps readers understand what compels speakers and what problems accompany speech without a known speaker, allowing us to assess how silence speaks and how speech renders the silent more knowable.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Author: Donald T. Critchlow
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199754616
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History brings together an unparalleled wealth of information about the laws, institutions, and actors that have governed America throughout its history. Entries key political figures, important legislation and governmental institutions, broad political trends relating to elections, voting behavior, and party development, as well as key court cases, legal theories, constitutional interpretations, Supreme Court justices, and other major legal figures. Emphasizing the interconnectedness of politics and law, the more than 430 expertly written entries in the Encyclopedia provide an invaluable and in-depth overview of the development of America's political and legal frameworks.

Moral und Politik

Author: Michael J. Sandel
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
ISBN: 3843712263
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Auf welche Weise können moralische Aspekte Einfluss auf die praktische Politik nehmen? Wie wertneutral dürfen sich Staat, Recht und Gesetz verhalten? Diese Fragen bilden den Hintergrund für Michael J. Sandels kluge Betrachtungen zu gesellschaftlichen Streitpunkten – etwa zu den Themen Sterbehilfe, Abtreibung, Homosexuellenrechte oder Stammzellforschung. Auch die moralischen Herausforderungen der Marktwirtschaft, die die bürgerlichen Werte herabwürdigt, spricht er an. Sandel vermittelt dabei die Vision einer gerechten Gesellschaft. Er entwickelt einen staatsbürgerlichen Freiheitsbegriff, der es dem Einzelnen ermöglicht, seine eigenen Wertevorstellungen in die Gemeinschaft einzubringen.

Philosophical Foundations of Fiduciary Law

Author: Andrew S. Gold
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191005290
Format: PDF, Docs
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Fiduciary law is a critically important body of law. Fiduciary duties ensure the integrity of a remarkable variety of relationships, institutions, and organizations. They apply to relationships of great personal significance, including in some jurisdictions the relationship between parents and children. They structure a wide variety of commercial relationships, and they are essential to the regulation of relationships between professional service providers and their clients, including relationships between lawyer and client, doctor and patient, and investment manager and client. Fiduciary duties, perhaps uniquely in private law, challenge traditional ways of marking the boundaries between private and public law, inasmuch as they figure prominently in public governance. Indeed, there is even a storied tradition of thinking of the authority of the state in fiduciary terms. Notwithstanding its importance, fiduciary law has been woefully under-analysed by legal theorists. Filling this gap with a series of chapters by leading theorists, this book includes chapters on: the nature of fiduciary relationships, the connection between fiduciary duties and morality, the content and significance of fiduciary loyalty, the economic significance of fiduciary law, the application of fiduciary principles to public law and international law, the import of fiduciary relationships to theories of authority, and various other fundamental topics in the field. In many cases, new and important questions are raised by the book's chapters. Indeed, this book not only offers a much-needed theoretical assessment of fiduciary topics, it defines the field going forward, setting an agenda for future philosophical study of fiduciary law.

Derivatives in Islamic Finance

Author: Sherif Ayoub
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748695729
Format: PDF, ePub
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Shedding light on the way the Islamic finance industry conceptualises the role of financial instruments in a market risk management framework that adheres to the objectives of Islamic jurisprudence, Sherif Ayoub explains the issues surrounding the avoidan

The Oxford Introductions to U S Law

Author: Randy E. Barnett
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199996393
Format: PDF
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Written by a leading expert in the field, The Oxford Introductions to U.S. Law: Contracts provides students with ready access to the basic doctrines of contract law, the story behind their evolution, and the rationales for their continued existence. An engaging book that allows students to grasp the "big picture" of contract law, it is organized around the principle that lies at the heart of contracts: consent. Beginning with the premise of "consent," the book provides a cohesive framework in which to understand the various aspects of contract law.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.