Capital A Critique of Political Economy Volume II

Author: Karl Marx
Publisher: VM eBooks
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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THE CIRCULATION OF MONEY-CAPITAL. The circulation process4 of capital takes place in three stages, which, according to the presentation of the matter in Volume I, form the following series: First stage: The capitalist appears as a buyer on the commodity and labor market; his money is transformed into commodities, or it goes through the circulation process M-C. Second stage: Productive consumption of the purchased commodities by the capitalist. He acts in the capacity of a capitalist producer of commodities; his capital passes through the process of production. The result is a commodity of more value than that of the elements composing it. Third stage: The capitalist returns to the market as a seller; his commodities are exchanged for money, or they pass through the circulation process C-M. Hence the formula for the circulation process of money capital is: M-C...P...C'-M', the dots indicating the points where the process of circulation was interrupted, and C' and M' designating C and M increased by surplus value.

Capital Volume One

Author: Karl Marx
Publisher: Dover Publications
ISBN: 9780486832395
Format: PDF, Docs
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Marx's classic of political economics constitutes a work of tremendous influence. In addition to its critique of private property, it also offers a thorough analysis of the scientific laws of capitalism.

Capital A Critique of Political Economy Volume I

Author: Karl Marx
Publisher: VM eBooks
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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THE TWO FACTORS OF A COMMODITY: USE-VALUE AND VALUE (THE SUBSTANCE OF VALUE AND THE MAGNITUDE OF VALUE). THE wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as "an immense accumulation of commodities,"10 its unit being a single commodity. Our investigation must therefore begin with the analysis of a commodity. A commodity is, in the first place, an object outside us, a thing that by its properties satisfies human wants of some sort or another. The nature of such wants, whether, for instance, they spring from the stomach or from fancy, makes no difference. 11 Neither are we here concerned to know how the object satisfies these wants, whether directly as means of subsistence, or indirectly as means of production. Every useful thing, as iron, paper, 8c., may be looked at from the two points of view of quality and quantity. It is an assemblage of many properties, and may therefore be of use in various ways. To discover the various use of things is the work of history.12 So also is the establishment of socially-recognised standards of measure for the quantities of these useful objects. The diversity of these measures has its origin partly in the diverse nature of the objects to be measured, partly in convention. The utility of a thing makes it a use-value.13 But this utility is not a thing of air. Being limited by the physical properties of the commodity, it has no existence apart from that commodity. A commodity, such as iron, corn, or a diamond, is therefore, so far as it is a material thing, a use-value, something useful. This property of a commodity is independent of the amount of labour required to appropriate its useful qualities. When treating of use-value, we always assume to be dealing with definite quantities, such as dozens of watches, yards of linen, or tons of iron. The use-values of commodities furnish the material for a special study, that of the commercial knowledge of commodities.14 Use-values become a reality only by use or consumption: they also constitute the substance of all wealth, whatever may be the social form of that wealth. In the form of society we are about to consider, they are, in addition, the material depositories of exchange value.

Marx s Critique of Political Economy Volume Two

Author: Allen Oakley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136509747
Format: PDF, ePub
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Volume Two covers the years 1861-1863, when Marx consolidated and refined the arguments of his critique of political economy in his relatively neglected manuscripts Theories of Surplus Value. * Special attention is paid to the nature, scope and limitations of Marx's critique and to the critique of Ricardo's Principles.

The Promise of Sociology

Author: Rob Beamish
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442634065
Format: PDF, ePub
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Unlike most introductory texts that take a topical approach to studying sociology, this smart, challenging, and accessibly written text looks at the core principles of the discipline, making links to a contemporary context. The second edition of this award-winning book has been substantially revised, making more direct connections between Generation Z, Mills’s concept of the sociological imagination, and the challenges students face in higher education today. The section on popular culture contains a new chapter on the history of popular music from early rock ’n’ roll to contemporary pop and R&B. New chapter objectives, end-of-chapter review and reflection questions, key terms, and glossary, as well as an instructor’s manual, make this text much more useful in the classroom.