Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Author: Millett Granger Morgan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1617261017
Format: PDF, ePub
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The United States produces over seventy percent of all its electricity from fossil fuels and nearly fifty percent from coal alone. Worldwide, forty-one percent of all electricity is generated from coal, making it the single most important fuel source for electricity generation, followed by natural gas. This means that an essential part of any portfolio for emissions reduction will be technology to capture carbon dioxide and permanently sequester it in suitable geologic formations. While many nations have incentivized development of CCS technology, large regulatory and legal barriers exist that have yet to be addressed. This book identifies current law and regulation that applies to geologic sequestration in the U.S., the regulatory needs to ensure that geologic sequestration is carried out safely and effectively, and barriers that current law and regulation present to timely deployment of CCS. The authors find the three most significant barriers to be: an ill-defined process to access pore space in deep saline formations; a piecemeal, procedural, and static permitting system; and the lack of a clear, responsible plan to address long-term liability associated with sequestered CO2. The book provides legislative options to remove these barriers and address the regulatory needs, and makes recommendations on the best options to encourage safe, effective deployment of CCS. The authors operationalize their recommendations in legislative language, which is of particular use to policymakers faced with the challenge of addressing climate change and energy.

The Oxford Handbook of Law Regulation and Technology

Author: Roger Brownsword
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191502227
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The variety, pace, and power of technological innovations that have emerged in the 21st Century have been breathtaking. These technological developments, which include advances in networked information and communications, biotechnology, neurotechnology, nanotechnology, robotics, and environmental engineering technology, have raised a number of vital and complex questions. Although these technologies have the potential to generate positive transformation and help address 'grand societal challenges', the novelty associated with technological innovation has also been accompanied by anxieties about their risks and destabilizing effects. Is there a potential harm to human health or the environment? What are the ethical implications? Do this innovations erode of antagonize values such as human dignity, privacy, democracy, or other norms underpinning existing bodies of law and regulation? These technological developments have therefore spawned a nascent but growing body of 'law and technology' scholarship, broadly concerned with exploring the legal, social and ethical dimensions of technological innovation. This handbook collates the many and varied strands of this scholarship, focusing broadly across a range of new and emerging technology and a vast array of social and policy sectors, through which leading scholars in the field interrogate the interfaces between law, emerging technology, and regulation. Structured in five parts, the handbook (I) establishes the collection of essays within existing scholarship concerned with law and technology as well as regulatory governance; (II) explores the relationship between technology development by focusing on core concepts and values which technological developments implicate; (III) studies the challenges for law in responding to the emergence of new technologies, examining how legal norms, doctrine and institutions have been shaped, challenged and destabilized by technology, and even how technologies have been shaped by legal regimes; (IV) provides a critical exploration of the implications of technological innovation, examining the ways in which technological innovation has generated challenges for regulators in the governance of technological development, and the implications of employing new technologies as an instrument of regulatory governance; (V) explores various interfaces between law, regulatory governance, and new technologies across a range of key social domains.

Climate Intervention

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309305322
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of emissions abatement or mitigation will show results over a timescale of many decades. How do we actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make a bigger difference more quickly? As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses CDR, the carbon dioxide removal of greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere and sequestration of it in perpetuity. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration introduces possible CDR approaches and then discusses them in depth. Land management practices, such as low-till agriculture, reforestation and afforestation, ocean iron fertilization, and land-and-ocean-based accelerated weathering, could amplify the rates of processes that are already occurring as part of the natural carbon cycle. Other CDR approaches, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration, direct air capture and sequestration, and traditional carbon capture and sequestration, seek to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and dispose of it by pumping it underground at high pressure. This book looks at the pros and cons of these options and estimates possible rates of removal and total amounts that might be removed via these methods. With whatever portfolio of technologies the transition is achieved, eliminating the carbon dioxide emissions from the global energy and transportation systems will pose an enormous technical, economic, and social challenge that will likely take decades of concerted effort to achieve. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration will help to better understand the potential cost and performance of CDR strategies to inform debate and decision making as we work to stabilize and reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Mining and Energy Law

Author: Samantha Hepburn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316334848
Format: PDF, Docs
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Mining and Energy Law is the only textbook available that encompasses a discussion of both the law and the policy of mining and resource regulation in existing and emergent areas, for the Commonwealth as well as for the states and territories in Australia. The book begins by examining the ownership framework underpinning natural resources within Australia and reviews the proprietary status and scope of mining tenements, and the regulation of offshore petroleum extraction. It goes on to explore the legal regimes that have emerged in response to more recent developments, such as coal seam gas, renewable energy and geo-sequestration. The book concludes with a discussion of the commercial and contractual arrangements commonly used by transacting parties operating in the sector. Mining and Energy Law is the ideal starting point for anyone seeking to understand the regulatory regimes and policy challenges relevant to one of Australia's most important industry sectors.

Greenhouse Gas Legislation Summary and Analysis of H R 2454 as Reported by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce

Author: Mark Holt
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437918786
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A report on H.R. 2454, the Amer. Clean Energy and Security Act. The bill would amend the Clean Air Act to establish a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions 17% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 83% below 2005 levels by 2050. The market-based approach would establish a cap on the emissions and would allow trading of emissions permits (¿allowances¿). The bill contains energy efficiency provisions that cover grants, standards, rebates and other programs for bldgs., lighting and commercial equip., water-using equip., wood stoves, industrial equip., and healthcare facilities. It contains provisions related to vehicles and fuels, incl. incentives to produce plug-in vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles. Illustrations.

Environmental and Economic Sustainability

Author: Paul E. Hardisty
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420059521
Format: PDF
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Never before has the quest to balance the needs of people, the environment, and the economy been so important. While sustainability has been widely taken up by governments and business, the world has continued to move in increasingly unsustainable directions, from continued dependence on fossil energy to rising greenhouse gas emissions, and erosion of biodiversity. We know what the right thing to do is, but somehow we cannot make the changes that are needed, and so we continue with business as usual, producing business-as-usual results. Based on more than fifteen years of research and practice, Environmental and Economic Sustainability introduces the environmental and economic sustainability assessment (EESA), a new way to make decisions that meets the challenges of the 21st century. Incorporating elements of life-cycle analysis, risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis, and comprehensive sensitivity analysis, EESA provides a fully quantitative, objective, and rational way to include all of the social, environmental, and economic issues relevant to a decision into one comprehensive analysis. The author demonstrates how to apply EESA using examples across a number of major industries, including petroleum, mining, and public utilities, and covering key issues such as water, greenhouse gases, waste, contaminated sites, and renewable energy. Case studies Management of produced water in the oil and gas industry in the Middle East Management of wastewater in a water utility in Australia Power generation and carbon management in an energy utility in Australia Remediation of contaminated gas works in the UK Energy savings and carbon management in heavy oil processing Ultimately, the solutions to problems of the 21st century will come from understanding the tremendous value that the environment provides, and reflecting that value within decision-making at every level so that society as a whole thrives. This book demonstrates that while business-as-usual approaches can be sub-optimal, spending on sustainable outcomes must be balanced with anticipated benefits. It demonstrates how to communicate with stakeholders in a transparent process which provides a robust view of how various options compare over a wide range of possible future conditions, using a language that everyone understands: money.

Carbon Capture and Storage in Developing Countries

Author: Natalya Kulichenko
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821396102
Format: PDF
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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology could provide a technological bridge for achieving near to midterm GHG emission reduction goals. Integrated CCS technology is still under development and has noteworthy challenges, which would be possible to overcome through the implementation of large-scale demonstration projects. In order to assist developing countries to better understand issues related to potential technology deployment, there is a need to start analyzing various numerous challenges facing CCS within the economic and legal context of developing countries and countries in transition. This report is the first effort of the World Bank Group to contribute to a deeper understanding of (a) the integration of power generation with CCS technologies, as well as their costs; (b) regulatory barriers to the deployment of CCS; and (c) global financing requirements for CCS and applicable project finance structures involving instruments of multilateral development institutions. This report does not provide prescriptive solutions to overcome these barriers, since action must be taken on a country-by-country basis, taking account of different circumstances and national policies. Individual governments should decide their priorities on climate change mitigation and adopt appropriate measures accordingly. The analyses presented in this report may take on added relevance, depending on the future direction of international climate negotiations and domestic legal and policy measures in both developed and developing countries, and how they serve to encourage carbon sequestration. We expect that this report will provide insights for policy makers, stakeholders, private financiers, and donors in meeting the challenges of the deployment of climate change mitigation technologies and CCS in particular.

Generating Electricity in a Carbon Constrained World

Author: Fereidoon P. Sioshansi
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080889719
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The electric power sector is what keeps modern economies going, and historically, fossil fuels provided the bulk of the energy need to generate electricity, with coal a dominant player in many parts of the world. Now with growing concerns about global climate change, this historical dependence on fossil-fuels, especially those rich in carbon, are being questioned. Examining the implications of the industry's future in a carbon-constrained world, a distinct reality, is the subject of this book. Containing contributions from renowned scholars and academics from around the world, this book explores the various energy production options available to power companies in a carbon-constrained world. The three part treatment starts with a clear and rigorous exposition of the short term options including Clean Coal and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technology, Coal, and Emission trading. Renewable energy options such as Nuclear Energy, Wind power, Solar power, Hydro-electric, and Geothermal energy are clearly explained along with their trade-offs and uncertainties inherent in evaluating and choosing different energy options and provides a framework for assessing policy solutions. This is followed by self-contained chapters of case-studies from all over the world. Other topics discussed in the book are Creating markets for tradable permits in the emerging carbon era, Global Action on Climate Change, The Impossibility of Staunching World CO2 Emissions and Energy efficiency. Clearly explains short term and long term options Contributions from renowned scholars and academics from around the world Case-studies from all over the world

Developments and Innovation in Carbon Dioxide CO2 Capture and Storage Technology

Author: M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845699580
Format: PDF, Docs
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the one advanced technology that conventional power generation cannot do without. CCS technology reduces the carbon footprint of power plants by capturing, and storing the CO2 emissions from burning fossil-fuels and biomass. This volume provides a comprehensive reference on the state of the art research, development and demonstration of carbon storage and utilisation, covering all the storage options and their environmental impacts. It critically reviews geological, terrestrial and ocean sequestration, including enhanced oil and gas recovery, as well as other advanced concepts such as industrial utilisation, mineral carbonation, biofixation and photocatalytic reduction. Foreword written by Lord Oxburgh, Climate Science Peer Comprehensively examines the different methods of storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the various concepts for utilisation Reviews geological sequestration of CO2, including coverage of reservoir sealing and monitoring and modelling techniques used to verify geological sequestration of CO2

Carbon Management

Author: Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309075734
Format: PDF, ePub
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Considerable international concerns exist about global climate change and its relationship to the growing use of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is released by chemical reactions that are employed to extract energy from fuels, and any regulatory policy limiting the amount of CO2 that could be released from sequestered sources or from energy-generating reactions will require substantial involvement of the chemical sciences and technology R&D community. Much of the public debate has been focused on the question of whether global climate change is occurring and, if so, whether it is anthropogenic, but these questions were outside the scope of the workshop, which instead focused on the question of how to respond to a possible national policy of carbon management. Previous discussion of the latter topic has focused on technological, economic, and ecological aspects and on earth science challenges, but the fundamental science has received little attention. This workshop was designed to gather information that could inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable in its discussions of possible roles that the chemical sciences community might play in identifying and addressing underlying chemical questions.