Cartels Markets and Crime

Author: Bruce Wardhaugh
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107036305
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
"As a means of industrial organization, cartels have had mixed acceptance in Europe after the end of the Industrial Revolution. In the late Nineteenth Century there were approximately four industry-wide cartels operating in Germany. By 1923, the figure had grown to over 1,500. Such organizations were a common, legal and (often) encouraged means of facilitating industrial and national development" -- Provided by publisher.

Cartel Criminality

Author: Christopher Harding
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317169638
Format: PDF
Download Now
Anti-competitive business cartels, engaging in practices such as price fixing, market sharing, bid rigging and restrictions on output, are now subject to strong official censure and rigorous legal control in a large number of jurisdictions across the world. The longstanding condemnation under the US Sherman Act of 1890 has been taken up (although in a rather different form) during the last thirty years in the EC/EU and in European national jurisdictions in particular, but also in a range of countries outside North America and Europe. Legal control has not only extended geographically but has intensified, as a number of jurisdictions have moved beyond administrative regulation and penalties to embrace enforcement through civil liability and (most significantly in terms of policy and rhetoric) the methods of criminal law. It is therefore timely to consider critically this development of legal control and assess its achievement to date and its future prospects. But such an exercise requires an understanding of the reasons and need for such regulation, based on a clear appreciation of the nature and extent of the economic and social malaise which is its subject. What, more exactly, are such business cartels, why do they come into existence and persist, why are they regarded as being so bad, and what are the objectives within this increasingly complex and multi-level phenomenon of legal control? By seeking to answer such fundamental questions, this book sets a research agenda for a pathology, aetiology and criminology of business cartels, and probes more accurately their nature, operation, endurance and perceived delinquency.

The Criminalization of European Cartel Enforcement

Author: Peter Whelan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191649031
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Cartel activity is prohibited under EU law by virtue of Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Firms that violate this provision face severe punishment from those entities responsible for enforcing EU competition law: the European Commission, the national competition authorities, and the national courts. Stiff fines are regularly imposed on firms by these entities; such firm-focused punishment is an established feature of the antitrust enforcement landscape within the EU. In recent years, however, focus has also been placed on the individuals within the firms responsible for the cartel activity. It is increasingly recognized that punishment for cartel activity should be individual-focused as well as firm-focused. Accordingly, a growing tendency to criminalize cartel activity can be observed in the EU Member States. The existence of such criminal sanctions within the EU presents a number of crucial challenges that need to be met if the underlying enforcement objectives are to be achieved in practice without violating prevailing legal norms. For a start, given the severe consequences of a custodial sentence, the employment of criminal antitrust punishment must be justifiable in principle: one must have a robust normative framework rationalizing the existence of criminal cartel sanctions. Second, for it to be legitimate, antitrust criminalization should only occur in a manner that respects the mandatory legalities applicable to the European jurisdiction in question. These include the due process rights of the accused and the principle of legal certainty. Finally, the correct practical measures (such as a criminal leniency policy and a correctly defined criminal cartel offence) need to be in place in order to ensure that the employment of criminal antitrust punishment actually achieves its aims while maintaining its legitimacy. These three particular challenges can be conceptualized respectively as the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization. This book analyses these three crucial challenges so that the complexity of the process of European antitrust criminalization can be understood more accurately. In doing so, this book acknowledges that the three challenges should not be considered in isolation. In fact there is a dynamic relationship between the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization and an effective antitrust criminalization policy is one which recognizes and respects this complex interaction.

Anti Cartel Enforcement in a Contemporary Age

Author: Caron Beaton-Wells
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782259414
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Leniency policies are seen as a revolution in contemporary anti-cartel law enforcement. Unique to competition law, these policies are regarded as essential to detecting, punishing and deterring business collusion ? conduct that subverts competition at national and global levels. Featuring contributions from leading scholars, practitioners and enforcers from around the world, this book probes the almost universal adoption and zealous defence of leniency policies by many competition authorities and others. It charts the origins of and impetuses for the leniency movement, captures key insights from academic research and practical experience relating to the operation and effectiveness of leniency policies and examines leniency from the perspectives of corporate and individual applicants, advisers and authorities. The book also explores debates surrounding the intersections between leniency and other crucial elements of the enforcement system such as compensation, compliance and criminalisation. The rich critical analysis in the book draws on the disciplines of law, regulation, economics and criminology. It makes a substantial and distinctive contribution to the literature on a topic that is highly significant to a wide range of actors in the field of competition law and business regulation generally. From the Foreword by Professor Frédéric Jenny ' ? fundamental questions are raised and thoroughly discussed in this book which is undoubtedly the most comprehensive scholarly work on leniency policies produced so far ? [the] book should be required reading for all seeking to acquire a deeper insight into the issues related to leniency policy. It is a priceless contribution ... '

Competition Law Compliance Programmes

Author: Johannes Paha
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319446339
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This book reviews and presents antitrust law compliance programmes from different angles. These programmes have been increasingly implemented and refined by firms over recent years, and various aspects of this topic have been researched. The contributions in this book extend beyond the treatment of legal issues and show how lawyers, economists, psychologists, and business scholars can help design antitrust law compliance programmes more effectively and run them more efficiently.

Criminalising Cartels

Author: Caron Beaton-Wells
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318134
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
This book is inspired by the international movement towards the criminalisation of cartel conduct over the last decade. Led by US enforcers, criminalisation has been supported by a growing number of regulators and governments. It derives its support from the simple yet forceful proposition that criminal sanctions, particularly jail time, are the most effective deterrent to such activity. However, criminalisation is much more complex than that basic proposition suggests. There is complexity both in terms of the various forces that are driving and shaping the movement (economic, political and social) and in the effects on the various actors involved in it (government, enforcement agencies, the business community, judiciary, legal profession and general public). Featuring contributions from authors who have been at the forefront of the debate around the world, this substantial 19-chapter volume captures the richness of the criminalisation phenomenon and considers its implications for building an effective criminal cartel regime, particularly outside of the US. It adopts a range of approaches, including general theoretical perspectives (from criminal theory, economics, political science, regulation and criminology) and case-studies of the experience with the design and enforcement of existing or contemplated criminal cartel regimes in various jurisdictions (including in Australia, Canada, EU, Germany, Ireland and the UK). The book also explores the international dimensions of criminalisation - its specific practical consequences (such as increased potential for extradition) as well as its more general implications for trends of harmonisation or convergence in competition law and enforcement.

Research Handbook on International Competition Law

Author: Ariel Ezrachi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857934805
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
The Research Handbook on International Competition Law brings together leading academics, practitioners and competition officials to discuss the most recent developments in international competition law and policy. This comprehensive Handbook explores the dynamics of international cooperation and national enforcement. It identifies initiatives that led to the current state of collaboration and also highlights current and future challenges. The Handbook features twenty-two contributions on topical subjects including: competition in developed and developing economies, enforcement trends, advocacy and regional and multinational cooperation. In addition, selected areas of law are explored from a comparative perspective. These include intellectual property and competition law, the pharmaceutical industry, merger control worldwide and the application of competition law to agreements and dominant market position. Presenting an overview of the current state of cooperation and convergence as well as a comparative analysis of substance and procedure, this authoritative Handbook will prove an invaluable reference tool for academics, competition officials and practitioners who focus on international competition law.

Criminal Cartel Enforcement Stakeholder Views on Impact of 2004 Antitrust Reform are Mixed but Support Whistleblower Protection

Author: Eileen R. Larence
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437989306
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Criminal cartel activity, such as competitors conspiring to set prices, can harm consumers and the U.S. economy through lack of competition and overcharges. The Dept. of Justice (DoJ) leniency program offers the possibility that the first individual or co. that self-reports cartel activity will avoid criminal conviction and penalties. The Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act (ACPERA) encourages such reporting. This report addresses: (1) the extent that ACPERA affected DoJ¿s criminal cartel enforcement; (2) the ways ACPERA has affected private civil actions; and (3) key stakeholder perspectives on rewards and anti-retaliatory protection for whistleblowers reporting antitrust violations. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

Quantitative Techniques for Competition and Antitrust Analysis

Author: Peter Davis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400831865
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book combines practical guidance and theoretical background for analysts using empirical techniques in competition and antitrust investigations. Peter Davis and Eliana Garcés show how to integrate empirical methods, economic theory, and broad evidence about industry in order to provide high-quality, robust empirical work that is tailored to the nature and quality of data available and that can withstand expert and judicial scrutiny. Davis and Garcés describe the toolbox of empirical techniques currently available, explain how to establish the weight of pieces of empirical work, and make some new theoretical contributions. The book consistently evaluates empirical techniques in light of the challenge faced by competition analysts and academics--to provide evidence that can stand up to the review of experts and judges. The book's integrated approach will help analysts clarify the assumptions underlying pieces of empirical work, evaluate those assumptions in light of industry knowledge, and guide future work aimed at understanding whether the assumptions are valid. Throughout, Davis and Garcés work to expand the common ground between practitioners and academics.

The Criminal Law of Competition in the UK and in the US

Author: Mark Furse
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857934317
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
In 2002, the UK introduced a criminal competition law into the UK legal system for the first time since the 18th century. Using a range of analytical lenses, Mark Furse re-appraises this law ten years on, and provides an extensive analysis of its features. This invigorating work details the policy arguments behind the introduction of the law, and examines Ð through consideration of the successful prosecutions in the US Ð the extent to which the law in practice may be considered to have succeeded or failed in the UK. The role of the US as global antitrust policeman is also considered. The book concludes with a consideration of the difficulties facing the UK in choosing to pursue a criminal route within the current civil framework. Including full discussions of relevant literature relating to the criminalisation of cartels, and the use of personal sanctions against cartelists, this book will appeal to postgraduates and advanced undergraduate students of competition law, competition law practitioners in the UK, EU and US, as well as competition law enforcement personnel.