Cartels Markets and Crime

Author: Bruce Wardhaugh
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107036305
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"As a means of industrial organization, cartels have had mixed acceptance in Europe after the end of the Industrial Revolution. In the late Nineteenth Century there were approximately four industry-wide cartels operating in Germany. By 1923, the figure had grown to over 1,500. Such organizations were a common, legal and (often) encouraged means of facilitating industrial and national development" -- Provided by publisher.

Cartel Criminality

Author: Christopher Harding
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317169638
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Anti-competitive business cartels, engaging in practices such as price fixing, market sharing, bid rigging and restrictions on output, are now subject to strong official censure and rigorous legal control in a large number of jurisdictions across the world. The longstanding condemnation under the US Sherman Act of 1890 has been taken up (although in a rather different form) during the last thirty years in the EC/EU and in European national jurisdictions in particular, but also in a range of countries outside North America and Europe. Legal control has not only extended geographically but has intensified, as a number of jurisdictions have moved beyond administrative regulation and penalties to embrace enforcement through civil liability and (most significantly in terms of policy and rhetoric) the methods of criminal law. It is therefore timely to consider critically this development of legal control and assess its achievement to date and its future prospects. But such an exercise requires an understanding of the reasons and need for such regulation, based on a clear appreciation of the nature and extent of the economic and social malaise which is its subject. What, more exactly, are such business cartels, why do they come into existence and persist, why are they regarded as being so bad, and what are the objectives within this increasingly complex and multi-level phenomenon of legal control? By seeking to answer such fundamental questions, this book sets a research agenda for a pathology, aetiology and criminology of business cartels, and probes more accurately their nature, operation, endurance and perceived delinquency.

The Criminalization of European Cartel Enforcement

Author: Peter Whelan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191649031
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Cartel activity is prohibited under EU law by virtue of Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Firms that violate this provision face severe punishment from those entities responsible for enforcing EU competition law: the European Commission, the national competition authorities, and the national courts. Stiff fines are regularly imposed on firms by these entities; such firm-focused punishment is an established feature of the antitrust enforcement landscape within the EU. In recent years, however, focus has also been placed on the individuals within the firms responsible for the cartel activity. It is increasingly recognized that punishment for cartel activity should be individual-focused as well as firm-focused. Accordingly, a growing tendency to criminalize cartel activity can be observed in the EU Member States. The existence of such criminal sanctions within the EU presents a number of crucial challenges that need to be met if the underlying enforcement objectives are to be achieved in practice without violating prevailing legal norms. For a start, given the severe consequences of a custodial sentence, the employment of criminal antitrust punishment must be justifiable in principle: one must have a robust normative framework rationalizing the existence of criminal cartel sanctions. Second, for it to be legitimate, antitrust criminalization should only occur in a manner that respects the mandatory legalities applicable to the European jurisdiction in question. These include the due process rights of the accused and the principle of legal certainty. Finally, the correct practical measures (such as a criminal leniency policy and a correctly defined criminal cartel offence) need to be in place in order to ensure that the employment of criminal antitrust punishment actually achieves its aims while maintaining its legitimacy. These three particular challenges can be conceptualized respectively as the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization. This book analyses these three crucial challenges so that the complexity of the process of European antitrust criminalization can be understood more accurately. In doing so, this book acknowledges that the three challenges should not be considered in isolation. In fact there is a dynamic relationship between the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization and an effective antitrust criminalization policy is one which recognizes and respects this complex interaction.

Research Handbook on International Competition Law

Author: Ariel Ezrachi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857934805
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Research Handbook on International Competition Law brings together leading academics, practitioners and competition officials to discuss the most recent developments in international competition law and policy. This comprehensive Handbook explores the dynamics of international cooperation and national enforcement. It identifies initiatives that led to the current state of collaboration and also highlights current and future challenges. The Handbook features twenty-two contributions on topical subjects including: competition in developed and developing economies, enforcement trends, advocacy and regional and multinational cooperation. In addition, selected areas of law are explored from a comparative perspective. These include intellectual property and competition law, the pharmaceutical industry, merger control worldwide and the application of competition law to agreements and dominant market position. Presenting an overview of the current state of cooperation and convergence as well as a comparative analysis of substance and procedure, this authoritative Handbook will prove an invaluable reference tool for academics, competition officials and practitioners who focus on international competition law.

Criminalising Cartels

Author: Caron Beaton-Wells
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318134
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is inspired by the international movement towards the criminalisation of cartel conduct over the last decade. Led by US enforcers, criminalisation has been supported by a growing number of regulators and governments. It derives its support from the simple yet forceful proposition that criminal sanctions, particularly jail time, are the most effective deterrent to such activity. However, criminalisation is much more complex than that basic proposition suggests. There is complexity both in terms of the various forces that are driving and shaping the movement (economic, political and social) and in the effects on the various actors involved in it (government, enforcement agencies, the business community, judiciary, legal profession and general public). Featuring contributions from authors who have been at the forefront of the debate around the world, this substantial 19-chapter volume captures the richness of the criminalisation phenomenon and considers its implications for building an effective criminal cartel regime, particularly outside of the US. It adopts a range of approaches, including general theoretical perspectives (from criminal theory, economics, political science, regulation and criminology) and case-studies of the experience with the design and enforcement of existing or contemplated criminal cartel regimes in various jurisdictions (including in Australia, Canada, EU, Germany, Ireland and the UK). The book also explores the international dimensions of criminalisation - its specific practical consequences (such as increased potential for extradition) as well as its more general implications for trends of harmonisation or convergence in competition law and enforcement.

The Criminal Law of Competition in the UK and in the US

Author: Mark Furse
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857934317
Format: PDF
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In 2002, the UK introduced a criminal competition law into the UK legal system for the first time since the 18th century. Using a range of analytical lenses, Mark Furse re-appraises this law ten years on, and provides an extensive analysis of its features. This invigorating work details the policy arguments behind the introduction of the law, and examines Ð through consideration of the successful prosecutions in the US Ð the extent to which the law in practice may be considered to have succeeded or failed in the UK. The role of the US as global antitrust policeman is also considered. The book concludes with a consideration of the difficulties facing the UK in choosing to pursue a criminal route within the current civil framework. Including full discussions of relevant literature relating to the criminalisation of cartels, and the use of personal sanctions against cartelists, this book will appeal to postgraduates and advanced undergraduate students of competition law, competition law practitioners in the UK, EU and US, as well as competition law enforcement personnel.

The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics

Author: Roger D. Blair
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019938861X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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More than any other area of regulation, antitrust economics shapes law and policy in the United States, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. In a number of different areas of antitrust, advances in theory and empirical work have caused a fundamental reevaluation and shift of some of the assumptions behind antitrust policy. This reevaluation has profound implications for the future of the field. The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics has collected chapters from many of the leading figures in antitrust. In doing so, this two volume Handbook provides an important reference guide for scholars, teachers, and practitioners. However, it is more than a merely reference guide. Rather, it has a number of different goals. First, it takes stock of the current state of scholarship across a number of different antitrust topics. In doing so, it relies primarily upon the economics scholarship. In some situations, though, there is also coverage of legal scholarship, case law developments, and legal policies. The second goal of the Handbook is to provide some ideas about future directions of antitrust scholarship and policy. Antitrust economics has evolved over the last 60 years. It has both shaped policy and been shaped by policy. The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics will serve as a policy and research guide of next steps to consider when shaping the future of the field of antitrust.

Criminal Cartel Enforcement Stakeholder Views on Impact of 2004 Antitrust Reform are Mixed but Support Whistleblower Protection

Author: Eileen R. Larence
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437989306
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Criminal cartel activity, such as competitors conspiring to set prices, can harm consumers and the U.S. economy through lack of competition and overcharges. The Dept. of Justice (DoJ) leniency program offers the possibility that the first individual or co. that self-reports cartel activity will avoid criminal conviction and penalties. The Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act (ACPERA) encourages such reporting. This report addresses: (1) the extent that ACPERA affected DoJ¿s criminal cartel enforcement; (2) the ways ACPERA has affected private civil actions; and (3) key stakeholder perspectives on rewards and anti-retaliatory protection for whistleblowers reporting antitrust violations. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

Quantitative Techniques for Competition and Antitrust Analysis

Author: Peter Davis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400831865
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book combines practical guidance and theoretical background for analysts using empirical techniques in competition and antitrust investigations. Peter Davis and Eliana Garcés show how to integrate empirical methods, economic theory, and broad evidence about industry in order to provide high-quality, robust empirical work that is tailored to the nature and quality of data available and that can withstand expert and judicial scrutiny. Davis and Garcés describe the toolbox of empirical techniques currently available, explain how to establish the weight of pieces of empirical work, and make some new theoretical contributions. The book consistently evaluates empirical techniques in light of the challenge faced by competition analysts and academics--to provide evidence that can stand up to the review of experts and judges. The book's integrated approach will help analysts clarify the assumptions underlying pieces of empirical work, evaluate those assumptions in light of industry knowledge, and guide future work aimed at understanding whether the assumptions are valid. Throughout, Davis and Garcés work to expand the common ground between practitioners and academics.