Cement Replacement Materials

Author: Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642367216
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The aim of this book is to present the latest findings in the properties and application of Supplementary Cementing Materials and blended cements currently used in the world in concrete. Sustainability is an important issue all over the world. Carbon dioxide emission has been a serious problem in the world due to the greenhouse effect. Today many countries agreed to reduce the emission of CO2. Many phases of cement and concrete technology can affect sustainability. Cement and concrete industry is responsible for the production of 7% carbon dioxide of the total world CO2 emission. The use of supplementary cementing materials (SCM), design of concrete mixtures with optimum content of cement and enhancement of concrete durability are the main issues towards sustainability in concrete industry.

Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

Author: Karen Scrivener
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401799393
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended system with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest research in their field. It contains nearly 80 papers and abstracts. Overall, this work gives a broad view of research on calcined clays in the field of construction and will stimulate further research into calcined clays for sustainable concrete.

Stone in Architecture

Author: Siegfried Siegesmund
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642451551
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The weathering of historical buildings and, indeed, of monuments and sculptures of natural stone is a problem that has been encountered for hundreds of years. However a dramatic increase in deterioration in the structure of our built heritage has been observed during the past century. To understand the complex interaction that the stone in a building suffers with its near environment (the building) and the macro environment (the local climate and atmospheric conditions) requires an interdisciplinary approach and the application of many disciplines. Climate change over the next 100 years is likely to have a range of direct and indirect impacts on many natural and physical environments, including the built environment. The protection of our architectural heritage has both cultural and historical importance, as well as substantial economic and ecological value. Large sums of money are being spent world-wide on measures for the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. The past few decades has seen an unprecedented level of research activity in this area, the result of which is often difficult to access and are summarized in the new edition of STONE IN ARCHITECTURE. The 4th edition of Stone in Architecture: Properties, Durability, is a sophisticated and thorough exploration of stone – its properties, performance and conservation – in monumental contexts. The current editors, Siegfried Siegesmund and Rolf Snethlage, note the pioneering work of Erhard Winkler who wrote the first edition in 1973 when so little information could be found in the literature on the subject. This new edition, also published by Springer, nearly doubles the size of Winkler’s 1994 effort. If you are familiar with the field and need to know little more than this statement, you can put aside this review and go buy the book. George Wheeler, Department of Scientific Research, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy Principles Challenges and Perspectives

Author: Walter Leal Filho
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319730282
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book gathers contributions from scientists and industry representatives on achieving a sustainable bioeconomy. It also covers the social sciences, economics, business, education and the environmental sciences. There is an urgent need to optimise and maximise the use of biological resources, so that primary production and processing systems can generate more food, fibre and other bio-based products with less environmental impacts and lower greenhouse gas emissions. In other words, we need a “sustainable bioeconomy” – a term that encompasses the sustainable production of renewable resources from land, fisheries and aquaculture environments and their conversion into food, feed, fibre bio-based products and bio-energy, as well as related public goods. Despite the relevance of achieving a sustainable bioeconomy, there are very few publications in this field. Addressing that gap, this book illustrates how biological resources and ecosystems could be used in a more sustainable, efficient and integrated manner – in other words, how the principles of sustainable bioeconomy can be implemented in practice. Given its interdisciplinary nature, the field of sustainable bioeconomy offers a unique opportunity to address complex and interconnected challenges, while also promoting economic growth. It helps countries and societies to make a transition and to use resources more efficiently, and shows how to rely less on biological resources to satisfy industry demands and consumer needs. The papers are innovative, cross-cutting and include many practice-based lessons learned, some of which are reproducible elsewhere. In closing, the book, prepared by the Inter-University Sustainable Development Research Programme (IUSDRP) and the World Sustainable Development Research and Transfer Centre (WSD-RTC), reiterates the need to promote a sustainable bioeconomy today.

Performance of Cement Based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments

Author: Mark Alexander
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400754132
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Concrete and cement-based materials must operate in increasingly aggressive aqueous environments, which may be either natural or industrial. These materials may suffer degradation in which ion addition and/or ion exchange reactions occur, leading to a breakdown of the matrix microstructure and consequent weakening. Sometimes this degradation can be extremely rapid and serious such as in acidic environments, while in other cases degradation occurs over long periods. Consequences of material failure are usually severe – adversely affecting the health and well-being of human communities and disturbing ecological balances. There are also large direct costs of maintaining and replacing deteriorated infrastructure and indirect costs from loss of production during maintenance work, which place a great burden on society. The focus of this book is on addressing issues concerning performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments , by way of this State-of-the-Art Report. The book represents the work of many well-known and respected authors who contributed chapters or parts of chapters. Four main themes were addressed: I. Nature and kinetics of degradation and deterioration mechanisms of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments, II. Modelling of deterioration in such environments, III. Test methods to assess performance of cement-based materials in such environments, and which can be used to characterise and rate relative performance and inform long term predictions, IV. Engineering implications and consequences of deterioration in aggressive aqueous environments, and engineering approaches to the problem.

Nanotechnology in Construction

Author: Konstantin Sobolev
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319170880
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Nanotechnology has already demonstrated surprising potential for improving the performance of construction materials and many of these recent developments were facilitated by NICOM symposia. The NICOM5 proceedings will cover the emerging opportunities and future use of nanotechnology in construction and will illustrate the broad potential for application of nanotechnology to challenging problems involving materials and infrastructure.

Materials Science for Structural Geology

Author: Mervyn S. Paterson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400755457
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book sets out the basic materials science needed for understanding the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals. Although at atmospheric pressure or at relatively low environmental pressures, these materials tend to be brittle, that is, to fracture with little prior plastic deformation when non-hydrostatically stressed, they can undergo substantial permanent strain when stressed under environmental conditions of high confining pressure and high temperature, such as occur geologically in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Thus the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals is of fundamental interest in structural geology and geodynamics. In mountain-building processes and during convective stirring in the Earth’s mantle, rocks can undergo very large amounts of plastic flow, accompanied by substantial changes in microstructure. These changes in microstructure remain in the rocks as evidence of the past deformation history. There are a number of types of physical processes whereby rock and minerals can undergo deformation under geological conditions. The physics of these processes is set out in this book.

On a Sustainable Future of the Earth s Natural Resources

Author: Muthuvairavasamy Ramkumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642329179
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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On a Sustainable Future of the Earth’s Natural Resources is divided into three sections, with individual chapters contributed by experts on diff erent facets of the earth sciences, natural resources management and related issues. The first section focuses on the status of Earth’s resources; land, water, biota and atmosphere. Reviews on the rate of exploitation and the need to conserve these resources for future sustenance are also covered in this section. Th e following section includes chapters elucidating environmental, ecological, climatological and anthropological pressures on sustained nourishment with the Earth’s resources. The last section describes management practices, issues and perspectives on sociological, legal, administrative, ICT and strategic efforts that need to be implemented in order to sustain our natural resources. This book covers a broad spectrum of the Earth’s resources and sustenance, offering a comprehensive perspective on their past, present and future.

Mine Wastes

Author: Bernd Lottermoser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642124198
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is not designed to be an exhaustive work on mine wastes. It aims to serve undergraduate students who wish to gain an overview and an understanding of wastes produced in the mineral industry. An introductory textbook addressing the science of such wastes is not available to students despite the importance of the mineral industry as a resource, wealth and job provider. Also, the growing imp- tance of the topics mine wastes, mine site pollution and mine site rehabilitation in universities, research organizations and industry requires a textbook suitable for undergraduate students. Until recently, undergraduate earth science courses tended to follow rather classical lines, focused on the teaching of palaeontology, cryst- lography, mineralogy, petrology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, structural geology, and ore deposit geology. However, today and in the future, earth science teachers and students also need to be familiar with other subject areas. In particular, earth science curriculums need to address land and water degradation as well as rehabili- tion issues. These topics are becoming more important to society, and an increasing number of earth science students are pursuing career paths in this sector. Mine site rehabilitation and mine waste science are examples of newly emerging disciplines. This book has arisen out of teaching mine waste science to undergraduate and graduate science students and the frustration at having no appropriate text which documents the scienti?c fundamentals of such wastes.

Waste Production and Utilization in the Metal Extraction Industry

Author: Sehliselo Ndlovu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498767303
Format: PDF, ePub
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Increasingly stringent environmental regulations and industry adoption of waste minimization guidelines have thus, stimulated the need for the development of recycling and reuse options for metal related waste. This book, therefore, gives an overview of the waste generation, recycle and reuse along the mining, beneficiation, extraction, manufacturing and post-consumer value chain. This book reviews current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste and also details the policy and legislation regarding the waste management, health and environmental impacts in the mining, beneficiation, metal extraction and manufacturing processes. This book is a useful reference for engineers and researchers in industry, policymakers and legislators in governance, and academics on the current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste. Some of the key features of the book are as follows: Holistic approach to waste generation, recycling and reuse along the minerals and metals extraction. Detailed overview of metallurgical waste generation. Practical examples with complete flow sheets, techniques and interventions on waste management. Integrates the technical issues related to efficient resources utilization with the policy and regulatory framework. Novel approach to addressing future commodity shortages.