Constructing Quarks

Author: Andrew Pickering
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226667997
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Widely regarded as a classic in its field, Constructing Quarks recounts the history of the post-war conceptual development of elementary-particle physics. Inviting a reappraisal of the status of scientific knowledge, Andrew Pickering suggests that scientists are not mere passive observers and reporters of nature. Rather they are social beings as well as active constructors of natural phenomena who engage in both experimental and theoretical practice. "A prodigious piece of scholarship that I can heartily recommend."—Michael Riordan, New Scientist "An admirable history. . . . Detailed and so accurate."—Hugh N. Pendleton, Physics Today

History of CERN III

Author: J. Krige
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080534039
Format: PDF
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The present volume covers the story of the history of CERN from the mid 1960s to the late 1970s. The book is organized in three main parts. The first, containing contributions by historians of science, perceives the laboratory as being at the node of a complex of interconnected relationships between scientists and science managers on the staff, the users in the member states, and the governments which were called upon to finance the organization. Parts II and III include chapters by practising scientists. The former surveys the theoretical and experimental physics results obtained at CERN in this period, while the latter describes the development of the laboratory's accelerator complex and Charpak detection techniques.

20th Century Physics

Author: Edoardo Amaldi
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810223694
Format: PDF, ePub
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In this important volume, major events and personalities of 20th century physics are portrayed through recollections and historiographical works of one of the most prominent figures of European science. A former student of Enrico Fermi, and a leading personality of physical research and science policy in postwar Italy, Edoardo Amaldi devoted part of his career to documenting, both as witness and as historian, some significant moments of 20th century science. The focus of the book is on the European scene, ranging from nuclear research in Rome in the 1930s to particle physics at CERN, and includes biographies of physicists such as Ettore Majorana, Bruno Touschek and Fritz Houtermans.Edoardo Amaldi (Carpaneto, 1908 - Roma, 1989) was one of the leading figures in twentieth century Italian science. He was conferred his degree in physics at Rome University in 1929 and played an active role (as a member of the team of young physicists known as ?the boys of via Panisperna?) in the fundamental research on artificial induced radioactivity and the properties of neutrons, which won the group's leader Enrico Fermi the Nobel Prize for physics in 1938. Following Fermi's departure for the United States in 1938 and the disruption of the original group, Amaldi took upon himself the task of reorganising the research in physics in the difficult situation of post-war Italy. His own research went from nuclear physics to cosmic ray physics, elementary particles and, in later years, gravitational waves. Active research was for him always coupled to a direct involvement as a statesman of science and an organiser: he was the leading figure in the establishment of INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) and has played a major role, as spokesman of the Italian scientific community, in the creation of CERN, the large European laboratory for high energy physics. He also actively supported the formation of a similar trans-national joint venture in space science, which gave birth to the European Space Agency. In these and several other scientific organisations, he was often entrusted with directive responsibilities. In his later years, he developed a keen interest in the history of his discipline. This gave rise to a rich production of historiographic material, of which a significant sample is collected in this volume.

Challenges and Goals for Accelerators in the XXI Century

Author: Oliver Brüning
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814436410
Format: PDF, Mobi
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' The past 100 years of accelerator-based research have led the field from first insights into the structure of atoms to the development and confirmation of the Standard Model of physics. Accelerators have been a key tool in developing our understanding of the elementary particles and the forces that govern their interactions. This book describes the past 100 years of accelerator development with a special focus on the technological advancements in the field, the connection of the various accelerator projects to key developments and discoveries in the Standard Model, how accelerator technologies open the door to other applications in medicine and industry, and finally presents an outlook of future accelerator projects for the coming decades. Contents:Introduction100 Years of Accelerators:Particle Accelerators in the XX Century: Lepton Accelerators for HEPParticle Accelerators in the XX Century: Hadron Accelerators for HEPParticle Accelerators in the XX Century: Asymmetric CollidersUnfulfilled DreamsLow Energy Accelerators: Nuclear PhysicsParticle Accelerators for the XXI Century:Particle Physics Accelerators in the XXI Century: Accelerators for HEP''Low Energy'' Accelerators: Rare Isotope Facilities in the XXI CenturyThe Quest for Power: High Power Proton Drivers in the XXI CenturyNovel Accelerator IdeasMedical Accelerators for Hadron Cancer Therapy Readership: Undergraduate students and professionals in accelerator physics. Key Features:Complete overview of past particle accelerator projectsDescription of LHC technology in time with the Higgs discoveryOutlook to potential future accelerator projects and applicationsSummary of medical applications for acceleratorsKeywords:Particle Accelerators;High Energy Physics;Accelerator Technology'

Basic Concepts of String Theory

Author: Ralph Blumenhagen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642294979
Format: PDF, ePub
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The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory at an intermediate level. As such it is not a compendium of results but intended as textbook in the sense that most of the material is organized in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. Beyond the basics, a number of more advanced topics are introduced, such as conformal field theory, superstrings and string dualities - the text does not cover applications to black hole physics and cosmology, nor strings theory at finite temperatures. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader wishing to pursue further studies or to start research in well-defined topics covered by this book.

Beyond the Desert 2002

Author: H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780750309349
Format: PDF, ePub
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Containing the Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Physics Beyond the Standard Model, this book reports the latest experimental and theoretical results and ideas in this exciting field, at the interface between particle physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. Taken as a whole, this book presents an overview of the current status of the field and a valuable analysis of future trends in theory and experimental approaches across particle astrophysics.

Prestigious Discoveries at CERN

Author: Roger Cashmore
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540207504
Format: PDF, ePub
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The discoveries of neutral currents and of the W and Z bosons marked a watershed in the history of CERN. They established the validity of the electroweak theory and convinced physicists of the importance of renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories of fundamental interactions. The articles collected in this book have been written by distinguished physicists who contributed in a crucial way to these developments. The book provides a historical account of those discoveries and of the construction and testing of the Standard Model. It also contains a discussion of the future of particle physics and gives an updated status of the LHC and its detectors currently being built at CERN. The book addresses those readers interested in particle physics including the educated public.