Chemical Modification Properties and Usage of Lignin

Author: Thomas Q. Hu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461506433
Format: PDF, Docs
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One of the most significant challenges facing mankind in the twenty-first century is the development of a sustainable global economy. Within the scientific community, this calls for the development of processes and technologies that will allow the sustainable production of materials from renewable natural resources. Plant material, in particular lignin, is one such resource. During the annual production of about 100 million metric tons of chemical wood pulps worldwide, approximately 45 and 2 million metric tons/year of kraft lignin and lignosulfonates, respectively, are also generated. Although lignosulfonates have found many applications outside the pulp and paper industry, the majority of kraft lignin is being used internally as a low-grade fuel for the kraft pulping operation. A surplus of kraft lignin will become available as kraft mills increase their pulp production without expanding the capacity of their recovery boilers that utilize lignin as a fuel. There is a tremendous opportunity and an enormous economic incentive to find better uses of kraft lignin, lignosulfonates and other industriallignins. The pulp and paper industry not only produces an enormous amount of lignins as by products of chemical wood pulps, but it also utilizes about 10 million metric tons of lignin per year as a component of mechanical wood pulps and papers. Mechanical wood pulps, produced in a yield of 90-98% with the retention of lignin, are mainly used to make low-quality, non-permanent papers such as newsprint and telephone directories because of the light-induced photooxidation of lignin and the yellowing of the papers.

Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Materials

Author: David N.-S. Hon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824794729
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume emphasizes the growing need for wood products with advanced engineering properties. It details the fundamental principles of cellulose technology and presents current techniques to modifying the basic chemistry of lignocellulosic materials. The work: discusses the cost-efficient use of cellulose derivatives in a variety of commodities; highlights the chemical modification of wood by methods such as etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers recent progress in the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wood; and more.

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals from Lignin

Author: Zhen Fang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811019657
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book provides state-of-the-art reviews, current research on and the prospects of lignin production, biological, thermal and chemical conversion methods, and lignin technoeconomics. Fundamental topics related to lignin chemistry, properties, analysis, characterization, and depolymerization mechanisms, as well as enzymatic, fungal and bacterial degradation methods are covered. The book also examines practical topics related to technologies for lignin and ultra-pure lignin recovery, activated carbon, carbon fiber production and materials, and addresses the biological conversion of lignin with fungi, bacteria or enzymes to produce chemicals, along with chemical, catalytic, thermochemical and solvolysis conversion methods. Lastly, it presents a case study on practical polyurethane foam production using lignin. Lignin has a bright future and will be an essential feedstock for producing renewable chemicals, biofuels and value-added products. Offering comprehensive information on this promising material, the book represents a valuable resource for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the field of biochemistry and energy.

Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials

Author: Calvo-flores
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118597869
Format: PDF, Mobi
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As naturally occurring and abundant sources of non–fossil carbon, lignin and lignans offer exciting possibilities as a source of commercially valuable products, moving away from petrochemical–based feedstocks in favour of renewable raw materials. Lignin can be used directly in fields such as agriculture, livestock, soil rehabilitation, bioremediation and the polymer industry, or it can be chemically modified for the fabrication of specialty and high–value chemicals such as resins, adhesives, fuels and greases. Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials presents a multidisciplinary overview of the state–of–the–art and future prospects of lignin and lignans. The book discusses the origin, structure, function and applications of both types of compounds, describing the main resources and values of these products as carbon raw materials. Topics covered include: Structure and physicochemical properties Lignin detection methods Biosynthesis of lignin Isolation methods Characterization and modification of lignins Applications of modified and unmodified lignins Lignans: structure, chemical and biological properties Future perspectives This book is a comprehensive resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in academia and industry working on new possibilities for the application of renewable raw materials. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Research

Author: Steven F. Warnmer
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781600213281
Format: PDF, ePub
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Like coal and petroleum, biomass is a form of stored solar energy. The energy of the sun is "captured" through the process of photosynthesis in growing plants. Like all methods used to generate energy, the combustion of biomass generates pollution as a by-product. One advantage of biofuel in comparison to most other fuel types is that the energy within the biomass can be stored for an indefinite amount of time without any danger. Agricultural products specifically grown for use as biofuels include corn and soybeans, primarily in the United States, as well as flaxseed and rapeseed, primarily in Europe, and hemp is a growing crop around the world except for in America. Waste from industry, agriculture, forestry, and households can also be used to produce bioenergy; examples include straw, lumber, manure, sewage, garbage and food leftovers. Biomass used as fuel often consists of under-utilised types, like chaff and animal waste. Much research is currently in progress into the utilisation of microalgae as an energy source, with applications being developed for biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, methane, and even hydrogen. On the rise is use of hemp, although current politics restrains it. This book presents the latest leading edge research in a field set to explode with growth.

Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites

Author: Roger M. Rowell
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203492439
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The degradable nature of high-performance, wood-based materials is an attractive advantage when considering environmental factors such as sustainability, recycling, and energy/resource conservation. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites provides an excellent guide to the latest concepts and technologies in wood chemistry and bio-based composites. The book analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of wood cellulose and its response to natural processes of degradation. It describes safe and effective chemical modifications to strengthen wood against biological, chemical, and mechanical degradation without using toxic, leachable, or corrosive chemicals. Expert researchers provide insightful analyses of the types of chemical modifications applied to polymer cell walls in wood, emphasizing the mechanisms of reaction involved and resulting changes in performance properties. These include modifications that increase water repellency, fire retardancy, and resistance to ultraviolet light, heat, moisture, mold, and other biological organisms. The text also explores modifications that increase mechanical strength, such as lumen fill, monomer polymer penetration, and plasticization. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites concludes with the latest applications, such as adhesives, geotextiles, and sorbents, and future trends in the use of wood-based composites in terms of sustainable agriculture, biodegradability and recycling, and economics. Incorporating over 30 years of teaching experience, the esteemed editor of this handbook is well-attuned to educational demands as well as industry standards and research trends.