Chemistry and Chemists in Florence

Author: Marco Fontani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319308564
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This brief offers a novel vision of the city of Florence, tracing the development of chemistry via the biographies of its most illustrious chemists. It documents not only important scientific research that came from the hands of Galileo Galilei and the physicists who followed in his footsteps, but also the growth of new disciplines such as chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and biochemistry. It recounts how, in the Middle Ages, chemistry began as an applied science that served to bolster the Florentine economy, particularly in the textile dyeing industry. Later, important scientific collections founded by the ruling Medici family served as the basis of renowned museums that now house priceless artifacts and instruments. Also described in this text are the chemists such as Hugo Schiff, Angelo Angeli, and Luigi Rolla, who were active over the course of the following century and a quarter. The authors tell the story of the evolution of the Royal University of Florence, which ultimately became the University of Florence. Of interest to historians and chemists, this tale is told through the lives and work of the principal actors in the university’s department of chemistry.

Carl Auer von Welsbach Chemist Inventor Entrepreneur

Author: Roland Adunka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319779041
Format: PDF, Docs
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This Brief documents the life, discoveries and inventions of the chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. Particular attention is given to his pioneering work on the rare earth elements, including the discovery of four new elements, which allowed him to develop new materials, to invent new useful devices and to establish major industries. From the invention of the incandescent gas mantle and first electric incandescent lamps with metal filaments to the first mass production of radium from pitchblende residues, readers will learn the story of his notable legacy to the word through the lens of his rare earths knowledge.

Targeted Delivery of Pesticides Using Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

Author: Arnab De
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 813221689X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The brief is the first to focus exclusively on environmentally friendly delivery of pesticides (controlled-release nanoparticulate formulation of pesticides using biodegradable polymers as carriers). The brief also introduces pesticides like Chlorpyrifos and biodegradable polymers like guar-gum. The brief will be extremely useful to the researchers in the field of agrochemicals and will be equally useful for advanced professionals in the field of biology, chemistry, environmental biology, entomology and horticulture.

Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuel Production

Author: Pratima Bajpai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811006873
Format: PDF, Docs
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The book describes the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes, which is an important step in increasing ethanol production for biofuels. It also highlights the main challenges and suggests possible ways to make these technologies feasible for the biofuel industry. The biological conversion of cellulosic biomass into bioethanol is based on the chemical and biological breakdown of biomass into aqueous sugars, for example using hydrolytic enzymes. The fermentable sugars can then be further processed into ethanol or other advanced biofuels. Pretreatment is required to break down the lignin structure and disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose so that the acids or enzymes can easily access and hydrolyze the cellulose. Pre-treatment can be the most expensive process in converting biomass to fuel, but there is great potential for improving the efficiency and lowering costs through further research and development. This book is aimed at academics and industrial practitioners who are interested in the higher production of ethanol for biofuels.

Holding Hands with Bacteria

Author: Soňa Štrbáňová
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662497360
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This biographical brief outlines the remarkable life and career of British biochemist, Marjory Stephenson (1885-1948). In nine concise chapters, Štrbáňová describes Stephenson's scientific accomplishments and sets these against the socio-political challenges of the time. Stephenson played an important role in the development of biochemistry and molecular biology. She was one of the first scientists to use microorganisms as models for research into cellular biochemical processes and their regulation. Later she went on to coin the term chemical microbiology, which was communicated in her monograph and textbook "Bacterial Metabolism" (1930-1949). Stephenson also actively participated in the establishment of the institutionalized interdisciplinary field of general microbiology which integrated research into diverse forms of microorganisms at various levels of organization. Alongside these scientific achievements, Štrbáňová outlines Stephenson's constant battle with practices of undeclared discrimination, her important role as one of the first women science managers and organizers, and her influential position within the scientific community. A scientist of great merit and a role model to women scientists of all disciplines, the life of Marjory Stephenson is of interest to biochemists, molecular biologists, historians of the chemical and biological sciences, and women scientists of all generations.

Natural Compounds

Author: Shakhnoza S. Azimova
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781461405597
Format: PDF
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'Natural Compounds: Plant Sources, Structure and Properties' details the properties of over 7,500 chemical compounds of pharmacological interest found in plants. Each volume systematically covers occurrence of the compounds in plants, illustrations of chemical structures plus physical-chemical, spectral, and pharmacological data. Entries are indexed by plant name, subject, and pharmacological property. This provides unique coverage of information on compounds isolated from some 3,000 plants, including many from central Asia and Russia, that are not well known elsewhere. The entries for each compound share a similar format. The entries are preceded by tabulated information on the occurrence of the compounds in plants etc. The highly experienced team of compilers from the renowned Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances in Tashkent have expertly assessed the international literature and include data only when confident of its validity, e.g. excluding data where measurement processes cause degradation of the original compound.

The Synthetic Nitrogen Industry in World War I

Author: Anthony S. Travis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319193570
Format: PDF, ePub
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This concise brief describes how the demands of World War I, often referred to as the Chemists’ War, led to the rapid emergence of a new key industry based on fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Then, as now, nitrogen products, including nitric acid, and nitrates, were essential for both fertilizers and in the manufacture of modern explosives. During the first decade of the twentieth century, this stimulated research into and application of novel processes. This book illustrates how from late 1914 the relations and developments in the first modern military-industrial complex enabled the great capital expenditures and technological advances that accelerated massive expansion, particularly of the BASF Haber-Bosch high-pressure process, that determined the direction of the post-war chemical industry.

Intelligent Interactive Technologies and Multimedia

Author: Anupam Agrawal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642374638
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Technologies and Multimedia, IITM 2013, held in Allahabad, India, in March 2013. The 15 revised full papers and the 12 revised short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 90 submissions. The papers present the latest research and development in the areas of intelligent interactive technologies, human-computer interaction and multimedia.

Avian Ancestors

Author: Federico Agnolin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400756372
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Although consensus exists among researchers that birds evolved from coelurosaurian theropods, paleontologists still debate the identification of the group of coelurosaurians that most closely approaches the common ancestor of birds. The last 20 years witnessed the discovery of a wide array of avian-like theropods that has considerably amplified the anatomical disparity among deinonychosaurians, some of which resemble Archaeopteryx more than Deinonychus. Among these newly discovered theropods that show remarkable bird-like characteristics are the four-winged theropods Microraptor and Anchiornis, and the unenlagiids Unenlagia, Buitreraptor, and Rahonavis. A bizarre group of minute-sized coelurosaurs, the Scansoriopterygidae, also exhibits some avian similarities that lead some authors to interpret them as more closely related to birds than other dinosaurs. With the aim to explore the phylogenetic relationships of these coelurosaurians and birds, we merged recently published integrative databases, resulting in significant changes in the topological distribution of taxa within Paraves. We present evidence that Dromaeosauridae, Microraptoria, Unenlagiidae, and Anchiornis + Xiaotingia form successive sister taxa of Aves, and that the Scansoriopterygidae are basal coelurosaurians not closely related to birds. The implications in the evolutionary sequence of anatomical characters leading to birds, including the origin of flight, are also considered in light of this new phylogenetic hypothesis.

L szl Zechmeister

Author: Michaela Wirth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319006428
Format: PDF, ePub
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Lázlo Zechmeister was one of the pioneers in chromatology. He recognized the potential of the chromatographic method and made extensive use of it for his research about natural products. In 1938 he founded the book series "Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products" which includes review articles on contemporary research by masters in their fields of expertise. This text casts light on his life and his pioneering role in chromatography and provides more detailed insight on the book series.