Inequality Poverty Education

Author: F. Ashurst
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137347015
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book challenges the practice of exclusion by uncovering its roots in 19th century social and educational policy targeting poor children. Revealing a hidden history of exclusion, this analysis exposes the connections between the state, the education system and social policy, and opens a space for radical alternatives.

Childhood in the Promised Land

Author: Laura Lee Downs
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822383969
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Childhood in the Promised Land is the first history of France's colonies de vacances, a vast network of summer camps created for working-class children. The colonies originated as a late-nineteenth-century charitable institution, providing rural retreats intended to restore the fragile health of poor urban children. Participation grew steadily throughout the first half of the twentieth century, "trickling up" by the late 1940s to embrace middle-class youth as well. At the heart of the study lie the municipal colonies de vacances, organized by the working-class cities of the Paris red belt. Located in remote villages or along the more inexpensive stretches of the Atlantic coast, the municipal colonies gathered their young clientele into variously structured "child villages," within which they were to live out particular, ideal visions of the collective life of children throughout the long summer holiday. Focusing on the creation of and participation in these summer camps, Laura Lee Downs presents surprising insights into the location and significance of childhood in French working-class cities and, ultimately, within the development of modern France. Drawing on a rich array of historical sources, including dossiers and records of municipal colonies discovered in remote town halls of the Paris suburbs, newspaper accounts, and interviews with adults who participated in the colonies as children, Downs reveals how diverse groups—including local Socialist and Communist leaders and Catholic seminarians—seized the opportunity to shape the minds and bodies of working-class youth. Childhood in the Promised Land shows how, in creating the summer camps, these various groups combined pedagogical theories, religious convictions, political ideologies, and theories about the relationship between the countryside and children's physical and cognitive development. At the same time, the book sheds light on classic questions of social control, highlighting the active role of the children in shaping their experiences.

Manufacturing Inequality

Author: Laura Lee Downs
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801430152
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"Manufacturing Inequality compares the complex historical process whereby metals employers in two distinct national and cultural settings first brought women into their factories and then reorganized work procedures and managerial structures to accommodate the new workforce. Drawing from an extensive range of previously untapped industrial archives, Laura Lee Downs analyzes how sexual difference was transformed from a principle for excluding women into a basis for dividing labor within the newly restructured production process. She explores the origins of wage discrimination and occupational segregation through the lens of managerial strategy, tracing the gendered redefinition of job skills, the division of the shop floor into hierarchically ordered spaces, the deployment of women welfare supervisors, and the implantation of scientific management techniques. Through its detailed comparative analysis of employers' attitudes toward women workers, Manufacturing Inequality mounts a careful critique of both neoclassical economics and feminist dual systems as frameworks for understanding gender discrimination in industry."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Europe s Invisible Migrants

Author: Andrea L. Smith
Publisher: Peterson's
ISBN: 9789053565711
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Until now, these migrations have been overlooked as scholars have highlighted instead the parallel migrations of former "colonized" peoples. This multidisciplinary volume presents essays by prominent sociologists, historians, and anthropologists on their research with the "invisible" migrant communities. Their work explores the experiences of colonists returning to France, Portugal and the Netherlands, the ways national and colonial ideologies of race and citizenship have assisted in or impeded their assimilation and the roles history and memory have played in this process, and the ways these migrations reflect the return of the "colonial" to Europe."--BOOK JACKET.

Integration Processes and Policies in Europe

Author: Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319216740
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In this open access book, experts on integration processes, integration policies, transnationalism, and the migration and development framework provide an academic assessment of the 2011 European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals, which calls for integration policies in the EU to involve not only immigrants and their society of settlement, but also actors in their country of origin. Moreover, a heuristic model is developed for the non-normative, analytical study of integration processes and policies based on conceptual, demographic, and historical accounts. The volume addresses three interconnected issues: What does research have to say on (the study of) integration processes in general and on the relevance of actors in origin countries in particular? What is the state of the art of the study of integration policies in Europe and the use of the concept of integration in policy formulation and practice? Does the proposal to include actors in origin countries as important players in integration policies find legitimation in empirical research? A few general conclusions are drawn. First, integration policies have developed at many levels of government: nationally, locally, regionally, and at the supra-national level of the EU. Second, a multitude of stakeholders has become involved in integration as policy designers and implementers. Finally, a logic of policymaking—and not an evidence-based scientific argument—can be said to underlie the European Commission’s redefinition of integration as a three-way process. This book will appeal to academics and policymakers at international, European, national, regional, and local levels. It will also be of interest to graduate and master-level students of political science, sociology, social anthropology, international relations, criminology, geography, and history.

Youth and Empire

Author: David M. Pomfret
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804796866
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is the first study of its kind to provide such a broadly comparative and in-depth analysis of children and empire. Youth and Empire brings to light new research and new interpretations on two relatively neglected fields of study: the history of imperialism in East and South East Asia and, more pointedly, the influence of childhood—and children's voices—on modern empires. By utilizing a diverse range of unpublished source materials drawn from three different continents, David M. Pomfret examines the emergence of children and childhood as a central historical force in the global history of empire in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This book is unusual in its scope, extending across the two empires of Britain and France and to points of intense impact in "tropical" places where indigenous, immigrant, and foreign cultures mixed: Hong Kong, Singapore, Saigon, and Hanoi. It thereby shows how childhood was crucial to definitions of race, and thus European authority, in these parts of the world. By examining the various contradictory and overlapping meanings of childhood in colonial Asia, Pomfret is able to provide new and often surprising readings of a set of problems that continue to trouble our contemporary world.

Urban Memory

Author: Mark Crinson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134315031
Format: PDF, ePub
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Nine previously unpublished essays form an interdisciplinary assessment of urban memory in the modern city, analysing this burgeoning area of interest from the perspectives of sociology, architectural and art history, psychoanalysis, culture and critical theory. Featuring a wealth of illustrations, images, maps and specially commissioned artwork, this work applies a critical and creative approach to existing theories of urban memory, and examines how these ideas are actualised in the forms of the built environment in the modernist and post-industrial city. A particular area of focus is post-industrial Manchester, but the book also includes studies of current-day Singapore, New York after 9/11, modern museums in industrial gallery spaces, the writings of Paul Auster and W.G. Sebald, memorials built in concrete, and contemporary art.

Childhood in the Late Ottoman Empire and After

Author: Benjamin C. Fortna
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers
ISBN: 9789004293120
Format: PDF, ePub
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This title is available online in its entirety in Open Access. This volume explores the ways childhood was experienced, lived and remembered in the late Ottoman Empire and its successor states in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when rapid change placed unprecedented demands on the young.

Urbanization and Growth

Author: Michael Spence
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821375747
Format: PDF, Docs
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Why is productivity higher in cities? Does urbanization cause growth or does growth cause urbanization? Do countries achieve rapid growth or high incomes without urbanization? How can policy makers reap the benefits of urbanization without paying too high a cost? Does supporting urbanization imply neglecting rural areas? Why do so few governments welcome urbanization? What should governments do to improve housing conditions in cities as they urbanize? Are innovations in housing finance a blessing or a curse for developing countries? How will governments finance the trillions of dollars of infrastructure spending needed for cities in developing countries? First in a series of thematic volumes, this book was prepared for the Commission on Growth and Development to evaluate the state of knowledge of the relationship between urbanization and economic growth. It does not pretend to provide all the answers, but it does identify insights and policy levers to help countries make urbanization work as part of a national growth strategy. It examines a variety of topics: the relevance and policy implications of recent advances in urban economics for developing countries, the role of economic geography in global economic trends and trade patterns, the impacts of urbanization on spatial inequality within countries, and alternative approaches to financing the substantial infrastructure investments required in developing-country cities. Written by prominent academics in their fields, Urbanization and Growth seeks to create a better understanding of the role of urbanization in growth and to inform policy makers tackling the formidable challenges it poses.

Radio and the Politics of Sound in Interwar France 1921 1939

Author: Rebecca Scales
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107108675
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In December 1921, France broadcast its first public radio programme from a transmitter on the Eiffel Tower, and in the decade that followed, radio evolved into a mass media capable of reaching millions. Urban crowds flocked to loudspeakers on city streets to listen to propaganda, children clustered around classroom radios, and families tuned in from their living rooms. Radio and the Politics of Sound in Interwar France surveys the impact of this emerging auditory culture on the dynamics of French politics to reveal how it served as a new platform for political engagement, transforming the act of listening into an important, if highly contested, practice of citizenship. Rejecting models of radio as a weapon of totalitarian regimes or for forging democracy from above, the book surveys radio's resonances in French culture and society to offer a more nuanced picture of the impact of broadcasting on politics between the world wars.