Cities of the Mediterranean

Author: Meltem Toksöz
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1780767692
Format: PDF, Mobi
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'The Eastern Mediterranean is one of the world's most vibrant and vital commercial centres and for centuries the region's cities and ports have been at the heart of East-West trade. Taking a full and comprehensive look at the region as a whole rather than isolating individual cities or distinct cultures, Cities of the Mediterranean offers a fresh and original portrait of the entire region, from the 16th century to the present. In this ambitious inter-disciplinary study, the authors examine the relationships between the Eastern Mediterranean port cities and their hinterlands as well as inland and provincial cities from many different perspectives - political, economic, international and ecological - without prioritising either Ottoman Anatolia, or the Ottoman Balkans, or the Arab provinces in order to think of the Eastern Mediterranean world as a coherent whole. Through its penetrating analysis of the various networks that connected the ports and towns of the Mediterranean and their inhabitants throughout the Ottoman period, Cities of the Mediterranean presents the region as a unified and dynamic community and paves the way for a new understanding of the subject.'

The Young Ottomans

Author: Nazan Cicek
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857718789
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The scope of the Western world’s Eastern Question in the nineteenth century loomed large, encompassing issues from the threat posed by the ‘Russian bear’ to the interests of other Great Powers in the Eastern Mediterranean, to the conditions, or rather ‘oppression’ of non-Muslims, especially Christians, under the Ottoman ‘yoke’. But the most important question of all, one that summarized the Eastern Question, was published in an anonymous pamphlet from 1850, which asked, ‘what to do with the Turk?’. He was the ‘sick man of Europe’ since his heydays came to an end in the late eighteenth century, and his possible untimely death spelled a nightmare for the crowned heads of Europe. _x000D_ In this book Nazan Çiçek narrates and analyses some salient features of the Eastern Question, or the Ottoman Empire’s ‘Western Question’, through the lenses of the Young Ottomans, the newly-rising semi-autonomous Ottoman Muslim Turkish intelligentsia. The Young Ottomans, although inwardly divided among themselves, were representative of a generation who shared a common framework of experiences and concerns that were mostly generated by the encounter of the Ottoman Empire with its ‘other’, the West. This encounter, intrinsically linked to the Eastern Question, compelled the Ottoman Empire to re-interpret its historical self-conception, to discover the qualities that rendered her different and vulnerable with regard to the West, and to seek a formula for survival in an increasingly hostile atmosphere._x000D_ The intellectual discussions offered by the Young Ottomans took a polemical stance not only on the way the Eastern Question unfolded and how it was received by the Ottomans as well as Western ruling elites and intelligentsias but also on the very legitimacy of the modernisation project initiated, manipulated and implemented by the Tanzimat regime between 1839 and 1876 and its Western backers. By considering the appearance of the Young Ottoman opposition as a site of struggle over the definition of civilisation, modernity, reform and citizenship, a struggle that was by and large engendered by the dynamics of the Ottoman Empire’s Western Question, this book narrates an alternative story of the Eastern Question as experienced by its Eastern observers and provides a fresh and original perspective on the political and intellectual history of the Ottoman Empire.

Mapping the Ottomans

Author: Palmira Brummett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316300250
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Simple paradigms of Muslim-Christian confrontation and the rise of Europe in the seventeenth century do not suffice to explain the ways in which European mapping envisioned the 'Turks' in image and narrative. Rather, maps, travel accounts, compendia of knowledge, and other texts created a picture of the Ottoman Empire through a complex layering of history, ethnography, and eyewitness testimony, which juxtaposed current events to classical and biblical history; counted space in terms of peoples, routes, and fortresses; and used the land and seascapes of the map to assert ownership, declare victory, and embody imperial power's reach. Enriched throughout by examples of Ottoman self-mapping, this book examines how Ottomans and their empire were mapped in the narrative and visual imagination of early modern Europe's Christian kingdoms. The maps serve as centerpieces for discussions of early modern space, time, borders, stages of travel, information flows, invocations of authority, and cross-cultural relations.

The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe

Author: Daniel Goffman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521459082
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This text provides an introduction to the history and institutions of the Ottoman Empire and presents a claim for its inclusion in Europe, as opposed to being apart from it due to its many cultural differences.

Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire

Author: Ga ́bor A ́goston
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438110251
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Presents a comprehensive A-to-Z reference to the empire that once encompassed large parts of the modern-day Middle East, North Africa, and southeastern Europe.

Ataturk

Author: M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400838177
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became the first president of Turkey in 1923, he set about transforming his country into a secular republic where nationalism sanctified by science--and by the personality cult Atatürk created around himself--would reign supreme as the new religion. This book provides the first in-depth look at the intellectual life of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him within the historical context of the turbulent age in which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the late Ottoman imperial order to the modern Turkish state through his life and ideas. Shedding light on one of the most complex and enigmatic statesmen of the modern era, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's youth as a Muslim boy in the volatile ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his education in nonreligious and military schools, to his embrace of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing Young Turks movement. Who was this figure who sought glory as an ambitious young officer in World War I, defied the victorious Allies intent on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the last sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's intellectual and ideological development at every stage of his life, demonstrating how he was profoundly influenced by the new ideas that were circulating in the sprawling Ottoman realm. He shows how Atatürk drew on a unique mix of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and other theories to fashion a grand utopian framework on which to build his new nation.

Worlds at War

Author: Anthony Pagden
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191029831
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The differences that divide West from East go deeper than politics, deeper than religion, argues Anthony Pagden. To understand this volatile relationship, and how it has played out over the centuries, we need to go back before the Crusades, before the birth of Islam, before the birth of Christianity, to the fifth century BCE. Europe was born out of Asia and for centuries the two shared a single history. But when the Persian emperor Xerxes tried to conquer Greece, a struggle began which has never ceased. This book tells the story of that long conflict. First Alexander the Great and then the Romans tried to unite Europe and Asia into a single civilization. With the conversion of the West to Christianity and much of the East to Islam, a bitter war broke out between two universal religions, each claiming world dominance. By the seventeenth century, with the decline of the Church, the contest had shifted from religion to philosophy: the West's scientific rationality in contrast to those sought ultimate guidance it in the words of God. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries witnessed the disintegration of the great Muslim empires - the Ottoman, the Mughal, and the Safavid in Iran - and the increasing Western domination of the whole of Asia. The resultant attempt to mix Islam and Western modernism sparked off a struggle in the Islamic world between reformers and traditionalists which persists to this day. The wars between East and West have not only been the longest and most costly in human history, they have also formed the West's vision of itself as independent, free, secular, and now democratic. They have shaped, and continue to shape, the nature of the modern world.

Tod in der W ste

Author: Rolf Hosfeld
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406674526
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Aghet – Katastrophe – so nennen die Armenier jene grauenvollen Ereignisse, die im Frühjahr 1915 begannen. Sie sind als der erste Genozid des 20. Jahrhunderts in die Geschichte eingegangen. Rolf Hosfeld, Deutschlands bester Kenner der Ereignisse, schildert eindringlich und historisch genau den Völkermord an den Armeniern, erläutert die Hintergründe und klärt auf über ein Thema, das immer noch zu den Tabus der Geschichtsschreibung gehört. Unter den Augen der Weltöffentlichkeit werden im Frühjahr und Sommer 1915 – mitten im Ersten Weltkrieg – die osmanischen Armenier von der Regierung in einer Weise selektiert und zusammengetrieben, die unübersehbar „den Zweck verfolgt, die armenische Rasse im türkischen Reiche zu vernichten“. So kabelt es der deutsche Botschafter in Konstantinopel im Juli 1915 nach Berlin. Zwischen 300.000 und 1,5 Millionen Menschen (die Schätzungen schwanken) sterben, viele von ihnen, Männer, Frauen und Kinder, weil man sie in die Wüste deportiert und dort verdursten lässt. Rolf Hosfeld hat den Opfern dieses Völkermords, der von der Türkei bis heute bestritten wird, mit seinem Buch ein erschütterndes Denkmal gesetzt.