Cities of the Mediterranean

Author: Meltem Toksoz
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857711407
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Eastern Mediterranean is one of the world's most vibrant and vital commercial centres and for centuries the region's cities and ports have been at the heart of East-West trade. Taking a full and comprehensive look at the region as a whole rather than isolating individual cities or distinct cultures, Cities of the Mediterranean offers a fresh and original portrait of the entire region, from the 16th century to the present. In this ambitious inter-disciplinary study, the authors examine the relationships between the Eastern Mediterranean port cities and their hinterlands as well as inland and provincial cities from many different perspectives - political, economic, international and ecological - without prioritising either Ottoman Anatolia, or the Ottoman Balkans, or the Arab provinces in order to think of the Eastern Mediterranean world as a coherent whole. Through its penetrating analysis of the various networks that connected the ports and towns of the Mediterranean and their inhabitants throughout the Ottoman period, Cities of the Mediterranean presents the region as a unified and dynamic community and paves the way for a new understanding of the subject.

The Young Ottomans

Author: Nazan Cicek
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857718789
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The scope of the Western world’s Eastern Question in the nineteenth century loomed large, encompassing issues from the threat posed by the ‘Russian bear’ to the interests of other Great Powers in the Eastern Mediterranean, to the conditions, or rather ‘oppression’ of non-Muslims, especially Christians, under the Ottoman ‘yoke’. But the most important question of all, one that summarized the Eastern Question, was published in an anonymous pamphlet from 1850, which asked, ‘what to do with the Turk?’. He was the ‘sick man of Europe’ since his heydays came to an end in the late eighteenth century, and his possible untimely death spelled a nightmare for the crowned heads of Europe. In this book Nazan Çiçek narrates and analyses some salient features of the Eastern Question, or the Ottoman Empire’s ‘Western Question’, through the lenses of the Young Ottomans, the newly-rising semi-autonomous Ottoman Muslim Turkish intelligentsia. The Young Ottomans, although inwardly divided among themselves, were representative of a generation who shared a common framework of experiences and concerns that were mostly generated by the encounter of the Ottoman Empire with its ‘other’, the West. This encounter, intrinsically linked to the Eastern Question, compelled the Ottoman Empire to re-interpret its historical self-conception, to discover the qualities that rendered her different and vulnerable with regard to the West, and to seek a formula for survival in an increasingly hostile atmosphere. The intellectual discussions offered by the Young Ottomans took a polemical stance not only on the way the Eastern Question unfolded and how it was received by the Ottomans as well as Western ruling elites and intelligentsias but also on the very legitimacy of the modernisation project initiated, manipulated and implemented by the Tanzimat regime between 1839 and 1876 and its Western backers. By considering the appearance of the Young Ottoman opposition as a site of struggle over the definition of civilisation, modernity, reform and citizenship, a struggle that was by and large engendered by the dynamics of the Ottoman Empire’s Western Question, this book narrates an alternative story of the Eastern Question as experienced by its Eastern observers and provides a fresh and original perspective on the political and intellectual history of the Ottoman Empire.

Mapping the Ottomans

Author: Palmira Brummett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316300250
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Simple paradigms of Muslim-Christian confrontation and the rise of Europe in the seventeenth century do not suffice to explain the ways in which European mapping envisioned the 'Turks' in image and narrative. Rather, maps, travel accounts, compendia of knowledge, and other texts created a picture of the Ottoman Empire through a complex layering of history, ethnography, and eyewitness testimony, which juxtaposed current events to classical and biblical history; counted space in terms of peoples, routes, and fortresses; and used the land and seascapes of the map to assert ownership, declare victory, and embody imperial power's reach. Enriched throughout by examples of Ottoman self-mapping, this book examines how Ottomans and their empire were mapped in the narrative and visual imagination of early modern Europe's Christian kingdoms. The maps serve as centerpieces for discussions of early modern space, time, borders, stages of travel, information flows, invocations of authority, and cross-cultural relations.

The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe

Author: Daniel Goffman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521459082
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This text provides an introduction to the history and institutions of the Ottoman Empire and presents a claim for its inclusion in Europe, as opposed to being apart from it due to its many cultural differences.

Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire

Author: Ga ́bor A ́goston
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438110251
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Presents a comprehensive A-to-Z reference to the empire that once encompassed large parts of the modern-day Middle East, North Africa, and southeastern Europe.

Ataturk

Author: M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400838177
Format: PDF, Docs
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When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became the first president of Turkey in 1923, he set about transforming his country into a secular republic where nationalism sanctified by science--and by the personality cult Atatürk created around himself--would reign supreme as the new religion. This book provides the first in-depth look at the intellectual life of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him within the historical context of the turbulent age in which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the late Ottoman imperial order to the modern Turkish state through his life and ideas. Shedding light on one of the most complex and enigmatic statesmen of the modern era, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's youth as a Muslim boy in the volatile ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his education in nonreligious and military schools, to his embrace of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing Young Turks movement. Who was this figure who sought glory as an ambitious young officer in World War I, defied the victorious Allies intent on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the last sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's intellectual and ideological development at every stage of his life, demonstrating how he was profoundly influenced by the new ideas that were circulating in the sprawling Ottoman realm. He shows how Atatürk drew on a unique mix of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and other theories to fashion a grand utopian framework on which to build his new nation.

Aleppo

Author: Philip Mansel
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1784534617
Format: PDF
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The first half is a history of Aleppo, its social classes and their conflicts, its legacy of tolerance, and its mixed population of Muslims, Christians, and Jews; Arabs, Turks, and Westerners, until the recent civil war. The second half is excerpts from the writings of fifteen Western travelers or inhabitants.--

City of Fortune

Author: Roger Crowley
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0679644261
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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“The rise and fall of Venice’s empire is an irresistible story and [Roger] Crowley, with his rousing descriptive gifts and scholarly attention to detail, is its perfect chronicler.”—The Financial Times The New York Times bestselling author of Empires of the Sea charts Venice’s astounding five-hundred-year voyage to the pinnacle of power in an epic story that stands unrivaled for drama, intrigue, and sheer opulent majesty. City of Fortune traces the full arc of the Venetian imperial saga, from the ill-fated Fourth Crusade, which culminates in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, to the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1499–1503, which sees the Ottoman Turks supplant the Venetians as the preeminent naval power in the Mediterranean. In between are three centuries of Venetian maritime dominance, during which a tiny city of “lagoon dwellers” grow into the richest place on earth. Drawing on firsthand accounts of pitched sea battles, skillful negotiations, and diplomatic maneuvers, Crowley paints a vivid picture of this avaricious, enterprising people and the bountiful lands that came under their dominion. From the opening of the spice routes to the clash between Christianity and Islam, Venice played a leading role in the defining conflicts of its time—the reverberations of which are still being felt today. “[Crowley] writes with a racy briskness that lifts sea battles and sieges off the page.”—The New York Times “Crowley chronicles the peak of Venice’s past glory with Wordsworthian sympathy, supplemented by impressive learning and infectious enthusiasm.”—The Wall Street Journal