Geochemistry

Author: Harry Y. McSween
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231509030
Format: PDF
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Written expressly for undergraduate and graduate geologists, this book focuses on how geochemical principles can be used to solve practical problems. The attention to problem-solving reflects the authors'belief that showing how theory is useful in solving real-life problems is vital for learning. The book gives students a thorough grasp of the basic principles of the subject, balancing the traditional equilibrium perspective and the kinetic viewpoint. The first half of the book considers processes in which temperature and pressure are nearly constant. After introductions to the laws of thermodynamics, to fundamental equations for flow and diffusion, and to solution chemistry, these principles are used to investigate diagenesis, weathering, and natural waters. The second half of the book applies thermodynamics and kinetics to systems undergoing changes in temperature and pressure during magmatism and metamorphism. This revised edition incorporates new geochemical discoveries as examples of processes and pathways, with new chapters on mineral structure and bonding and on organic matter and biomarkers. Each chapter has worked problems, and the authors assume that the student has had a year of college-level chemistry and a year of calculus. Praise for the first edition "A truly modern geochemistry book.... Very well written and quite enjoyable to read.... An excellent basic text for graduate level instruction in geochemistry." —Journal of Geological Education "An up-to-date, broadly conceived introduction to geochemistry.... Given the recent flowering of geochemistry as an interdisciplinary science, and given the extent to which it now draws upon the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics to understand earth and planetary processes, this timely and rigorous [book] is welcome indeed." —Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

Geoscience Information

Author: A.P. Harvey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940117444X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The International Conference on Geological Information represents the first major attempt to bring together geoscience information specialists from allover the world. The purpose of the conference was to assess the current state-of the-art in geoscience information from both the regional and functional point of view. It was hoped that the conference could take steps to bring about increased international cooperation and collaboration in the field of geological information. The papers ranged over the whole spec trum of documentation from primary publishing back to the user, including data. Perhaps a keyword for the conference might be "cooperation". The idea of, and need for, cooperation was stressed in almost every talk. The final panel session was devoted to a discussion on the formation of a proposed International Association for Geological Information. Despite the growing pressure on information managers, stimulated by increasing international activities in geology, the global perspective of plate tectonics and worldwide concern for the availability of non-renewable resources, there does not exist an international organisation specifi cally concerned with geological information. Delegates agreed that there was no need for a new professional society of individuals but that a federation or similar organisation might be desirable. In the final session it became apparent that if the geological information community is to make the best use of all the systems and developments available there is very clearly a need to know what exists in all these areas at present. An urgent task is to identify these systems.

Scientific Authentication of the Bible

Author: Franklin Nolle Williams
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1483675580
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In August of 1994 a paper was published in the scholarly Statistical Science, a journal of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, entitled Equidistant Letter Sequences in the Book of Genesis. The paper was written by three internationally respected Hebrew Scholars and mathematicians, Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips, and Yoav Rosenberg. Their assertion is that there is a hidden, underlying text in the Torah, the first five books of the Bible. The following is an excerpt from their abstract of the paper which can be found in the appendix of Michael Drosnins book, The Bible Codes; It has been noted that when the Book of Genesis is written as two-dimensional arrays, equidistant letter sequences spelling words with related meanings often appear in close proximity. Quantitative tools for measuring this phenomenon are developed. Randomization analysis shows that the effect is significant at the level of 0.00002. The arrays are rows with an equal number of letters with all the punctuation and spaces removed. The sequences they are referring to are words like hammer and anvil, table and chair, rain and umbrella. These words go together and are usually found close to one another in the arrays. The tools they are referring to are the tools of mathematics involved. The randomization analysis is two one-hundred thousandths. In other words, it could only be two in one-hundred thousand chances that this occurred by the accidental random sequences of letters in this text. Most scientific experiments only require one in a hundred, 1/100 or .01, as being within validity. It was the occasion of the Bible Codes that it occurred to me that if there was an underlying code, then it would be ludicrous for the surface text to be invalid. Scribes had been specially trained to write the surface text verbatim, without one jot or tittle changed. If there was one mistake they were made to rewrite the whole page again. It was written contiguous, without punctuation or spacing between words. It was considered heretical if anything was changed. Because of this I began to study the surface text very carefully to find any hidden meanings that may have been there.

Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry

Author: D. H. Whiffen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148316568X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase ""atomic units"" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitted. A table is included with the physical constants or mixtures of physical constants, to be normally used as a factor, to convert into SI the results of theoretical computations of a selected list of physical quantities. The first column lists these physical quantities, the second column shows their usual symbols, and the third column gives the mixture of physical constants X corresponding to each physical quantity. The descriptions of X are not unique but the value in SI is naturally unaffected by the form in which Xh is expressed. For convenience the final column of the table gives values of X to five significant figures. For higher accuracy the most recent table of physical constants should be used to re-evaluate the numbers. This monograph will be a useful resource for students, chemists, and physicists.

The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen advances

Author: G. W. Series
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789971502614
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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After more than a century of study, the hydrogen atom still presents challenges and opportunities to theoretical as well as to experimental physicists. The discovery of the Lamb shift in the late nineteen forties, followed by the development of QED and the introduction of powerful new experimental techniques in the nineteen sixties and seventies, have preserved for hydrogen its central place in atomic physics. Part I of this book, a reprint of the work published in 1957, covers the period from the earliest days up to the late nineteen fifties. Part II, a collection of progress reports written by well-known specialists on hydrogen and hydrogen-like systems, presents the advances in theory and experiment that have occurred since that time.