Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention

Author: George R. Mangun
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123984963
Format: PDF, Docs
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Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention explores the fundamental mechanisms of attention and related cognitive functions from cognitive neuroscience perspectives. Attention is an essential cognitive ability that enables humans to process and act upon relevant information while ignoring distracting information, and the capacity to focus attention is at the core of mental functioning. Understanding the neural bases of human attention remains a key challenge for neuroscientists and psychologists, and is essential for translational efforts to treat attentional deficits in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Cognitive electrophysiology is at the center of a multidisciplinary approach that involves the efforts of psychologists, neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists to identify basic brain mechanisms and develop translational approaches to improve mental health. This edited volume is authored by leading investigators in the field and discusses methods focused on electrophysiological recordings in humans, including electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) methods, and also incorporates evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention illuminates specific models about attentional mechanisms in vision, audition, multisensory integration, memory, and semantic processing in humans. Provides an exhaustive overview of attention processes, going from normal functioning to the pathological, and using a combination of methodological tools An important reference for electrophysiology researchers looking at underlying attention processes rather than the methods themselves Enables researchers across a broad range of cognitive-process and methodological specialties to stay current on particular hypotheses, findings, and methods Edited and authored by the worldwide leaders in the field, affording the broadest, most expert coverage available

Context in Communication A Cognitive View

Author: Gabriella Airenti
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889451429
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Context is what contributes to interpret a communicative act beyond the spoken words. It provides information essential to clarify the intentions of a speaker, and thus to identify the actual meaning of an utterance. A large amount of research in Pragmatics has shown how wide-ranging and multifaceted this concept can be. Context spans from the preceding words in a conversation to the general knowledge that the interlocutors supposedly share, from the perceived environment to features and traits that the participants in a dialogue attribute to each other. This last category is also very broad, since it includes mental and emotional states, together with culturally constructed knowledge, such as the reciprocal identification of social roles and positions. The assumption of a cognitive point of view brings to the foreground a number of new questions regarding how information about the context is organized in the mind and how this kind of knowledge is used in specific communicative situations. A related, very important question concerns the role played in this process by theory of mind abilities (ToM), both in typical and atypical populations. In this Research Topic, we bring together articles that address different aspects of context analysis from theoretical and empirical perspectives, integrating knowledge and methods derived from Philosophy of language, Linguistics, Cognitive Science, Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental and Clinical Psychology.

Beyond the simple contrastive analysis Appropriate experimental approaches for unraveling the neural basis of conscious experience

Author: Jaan Aru
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889195473
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Contrasting conditions with and without conscious experience has served consciousness research well. However, research based on this simple contrast has led to controversies about the neural basis of conscious experience. One key reason for these ongoing debates seems to be that the simple contrast between conditions with and without consciousness is not specific for unraveling the neural basis of conscious experience, but rather also leads to other processes that precede or follow it. Acknowledging this methodological problem implies that some of the previous research findings about the neural underpinnings of conscious experience are actually reflecting the prerequisites and consequences rather than the direct correlates of conscious perception. Thus, it is required to re-evaluate the previous results to find out which of them are telling us anything about the neural basis of consciousness. But first and foremost, to overcome this methodological problem we need new experimental paradigms that go beyond the simple contrastive analysis or find the ways how some older but well forgotten paradigms may foster a new look at this emerging problem. Accordingly, this research topic is looking for empirical and theoretical contributions that: 1) envision new and suitable experimental approaches to study consciousness that are free from the limitations of the simple contrastive analysis; 2) provide empirical data that help to separate the neural correlates of conscious experience from the prerequisites and consequences of it; 3) help to re-assess previous research findings about the neural correlates of conscious perception in the light of the methodological problems with the traditional contrastive analysis. We hope that the theoretical insights and experimental approaches collected within this Research Topic help us to gain a more refined understanding of the neural basis of conscious experience.

Cognitive Electrophysiology

Author: H.-J. Heinze
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461202833
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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MICHAEL S. GAZZANIGA The investigation of the human brain and mind involves a myriad of ap proaches. Cognitive neuroscience has grown out of the appreciation that these approaches have common goals that are separate from other goals in the neural sciences. By identifying cognition as the construct of interest, cognitive neuro science limits the scope of investigation to higher mental functions, while simultaneously tackling the greatest complexity of creation, the human mind. The chapters of this collection have their common thread in cognitive neuroscience. They attack the major cognitive processes using functional stud ies in humans. Indeed, functional measures of human sensation, perception, and cognition are the keystone of much of the neuroscience of cognitive sci ence, and event-related potentials (ERPs) represent a methodological "coming of age" in the study of the intricate temporal characteristics of cognition. Moreover, as the field of cognitive ERPs has matured, the very nature of physiology has undergone a significant revolution. It is no longer sufficient to describe the physiology of non-human primates; one must consider also the detailed knowledge of human brain function and cognition that is now available from functional studies in humans-including the electrophysiological studies in humans described here. Together with functional imaging of the human brain via positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), ERPs fill our quiver with the arrows required to pierce more than the single neuron, but the networks of cognition.

Mind and the Frontal Lobes

Author: Brian Levine
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199791562
Format: PDF, ePub
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The human frontal lobes are crucial to mental functioning, yet ongoing research is still uncovering their mechanisms. This text, written by leaders in frontal lobe research, provides a state-of-the-art update of patient and neuroimaging research.

The Student s Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience

Author: Jamie Ward
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317483154
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Reflecting recent changes in the way cognition and the brain are studied, this thoroughly updated third edition of the best-selling textbook provides a comprehensive and student-friendly guide to cognitive neuroscience. Jamie Ward provides an easy-to-follow introduction to neural structure and function, as well as all the key methods and procedures of cognitive neuroscience, with a view to helping students understand how they can be used to shed light on the neural basis of cognition. The book presents an up-to-date overview of the latest theories and findings in all the key topics in cognitive neuroscience, including vision, memory, speech and language, hearing, numeracy, executive function, social and emotional behaviour and developmental neuroscience, as well as a new chapter on attention. Throughout, case studies, newspaper reports and everyday examples are used to help students understand the more challenging ideas that underpin the subject. In addition each chapter includes: Summaries of key terms and points Example essay questions Recommended further reading Feature boxes exploring interesting and popular questions and their implications for the subject. Written in an engaging style by a leading researcher in the field, and presented in full-color including numerous illustrative materials, this book will be invaluable as a core text for undergraduate modules in cognitive neuroscience. It can also be used as a key text on courses in cognition, cognitive neuropsychology, biopsychology or brain and behavior. Those embarking on research will find it an invaluable starting point and reference. The Student’s Guide to Cognitive Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is supported by a companion website, featuring helpful resources for both students and instructors.

The Oxford Handbook of Attention

Author: Kia Nobre
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199675112
Format: PDF, Kindle
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During the last three decades, there have been enormous advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms of selective attention at the network as well as the cellular level. The Oxford Handbook of Attention brings together the different research areas that constitute contemporary attention research into one comprehensive and authoritative volume. In 40 chapters, it covers the most important aspects of attention research from the areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, human and animal neuroscience, computational modelling, and philosophy. The book is divided into 4 main sections. Following an introduction from Michael Posner, the books starts by looking at theoretical models of attention. The next two sections are dedicated to spatial attention and non-spatial attention respectively. Within section 4, the authors consider the interactions between attention and other psychological domains. The last two sections focus on attention-related disorders, and finally, on computational models of attention. Aimed at both scholars and students, the Oxford Handbook of Attention provides a concise and state-of-the-art review of the current literature in this field.

Neurobiology of Attention

Author: Laurent Itti
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080454313
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A key property of neural processing in higher mammals is the ability to focus resources by selectively directing attention to relevant perceptions, thoughts or actions. Research into attention has grown rapidly over the past two decades, as new techniques have become available to study higher brain function in humans, non-human primates, and other mammals. Neurobiology of Attention is the first encyclopedic volume to summarize the latest developments in attention research. An authoritative collection of over 100 chapters organized into thematic sections provides both broad coverage and access to focused, up-to-date research findings. This book presents a state-of-the-art multidisciplinary perspective on psychological, physiological and computational approaches to understanding the neurobiology of attention. Ideal for students, as a reference handbook or for rapid browsing, the book has a wide appeal to anybody interested in attention research. * Contains numerous quick-reference articles covering the breadth of investigation into the subject of attention * Provides extensive introductory commentary to orient and guide the reader * Includes the most recent research results in this field of study

Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience

Author: Randall C. O'Reilly
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262650540
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This text, based on a course taught by Randall O'Reilly and Yuko Munakata over thepast several years, provides an in-depth introduction to the main ideas in the computationalcognitive neuroscience.