Cognitive Pragmatics

Author: Bruno G. Bara
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262014114
Format: PDF, ePub
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An argument that communication is a cooperative activity between agents, who together consciously and intentionally construct the meaning of their interaction.

Pragmatics in Dementia Discourse

Author: Boyd H. Davis
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443863750
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Alison Wray notes that “Alzheimer’s Disease affects language in many different ways. Directly, language processing is undermined by damage to the language areas of the brain. Indirectly, language is compromised by short term memory loss, distortions in perception, and disturbed semantic representation . . . All of this makes AD an obvious focus of interest for linguists and in particular, those interested in the field of pragmatics – yet a striking amount of what is published about AD language is written by non-linguists. AD language is independently researched in at least psychology, neuroscience, sociology, clinical linguistics and nursing. Each discipline has its own methods, theories, assumptions and values, which affect the research questions asked, the empirical approach taken in answering them, and how the evidence is interpreted. Without a more reliable holistic picture informed by linguistic and applied linguistic theory and methods, approaches to diagnosis and care risk being constrained, and may result in a less than satisfactory experience for all those whose daily life involves the direct or indirect experience of AD.” This book is an attempt to address some of the above issues noted by bringing together a group of researchers whose work focuses on interaction in the context of dementia. The authors represent the fields of linguistics, clinical linguistics, nursing, and speech pathology, and each chapter draws on methods associated with discourse analysis and pragmatics to examine how people with dementia utilize language in the presence of cognitive decline. In addition, the book seeks to generate academic discussion on how researchers can move forward to focus greater attention on this topic. In particular, this collection will inspire researchers involved in mainstream theoretical linguistics and pragmatics to turn their attention to the discourse of dementia and investigate what it has to say about our knowledge of language theories, and, in addition, to challenge what we know about ourselves as subjective beings.

The Structure of Multimodal Dialogue II

Author: M. M. Taylor
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027221901
Format: PDF
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Most dialogues are multimodal. When people talk, they use not only their voices, but also facial expressions and other gestures, and perhaps even touch. When computers communicate with people, they use pictures and perhaps sounds, together with textual language, and when people communicate with computers, they are likely to use mouse gestures almost as much as words. How are such multimodal dialogues constructed? This is the main question addressed in this selection of papers of the second Venaco Workshop, sponsored by the NATO Research Study Group RSG-10 on Automatic Speech Processing, and by the European Speech Communication Association (ESCA).

Language in Mind

Author: Dedre Gentner
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262571630
Format: PDF
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Contemporary investigations of the Whorfian idea that language influences how we perceive and understand the world.

Radical Embodied Cognitive Science

Author: Anthony Chemero
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262258080
Format: PDF, Docs
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While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind. Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, "shored up" and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one. "Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher," Chemero writes in his preface, adding, "I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything." With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.

From Molecule to Metaphor

Author: Jerome Feldman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262296888
Format: PDF
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In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations -- formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines.After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science

Author: Keith Stenning
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262293536
Format: PDF, ePub
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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.

The Act of Thinking

Author: Derek Melser
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262263832
Format: PDF, ePub
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In this remarkable monograph, Derek Melser argues that the core assumption of both folk psychology and cognitive science -- that thinking goes on in the head -- is mistaken. Melser argues that thinking is not an intracranial process of any kind, mental or neural, but is rather a learned action of the person.After an introduction in which he makes a prima facie case that thinking is an action, Melser reviews action-based theories of thinking advanced by Ryle, Vygotsky, Hampshire and others. He then presents his own theory of "token concerting," according to which thinking is a special kind of token performance, by the individual, of certain social, concerted activity. He examines the developmental role of concerted activity, the token performance of concerted activity, the functions of speech, the mechanics and uses of covert tokening, empathy, the origins of solo action, the actional nature of perception, and various kinds and aspects of mature thinking. In addition, he analyzes the role of metaphors in the folk notion of mind.While intending his theory as a contribution to the philosophy of mind, Melser aims also at a larger goal: to establish actions as a legitimate philosophical given, self-explanatory and sui generis. To this end, he argues in the final chapter against the possibility of scientific explanation of actions. The Act of Thinking opens up a large new area for philosophical research.

Handbook of Pragmatics

Author: JEF AUTOR VERSCHUEREN
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF
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This encyclopaedia of one of the major fields of language studies is a continuously updated source of state-of-the-art information for anyone interested in language use. It provides easy access for scholars with widely divergent backgrounds but with convergent interests in the use and functioning of language to the different topics, traditions and methods which together make up the field of Pragmatics, broadly conceived as the cognitive, social and cultural study of language and communication . The Handbook of Pragmatics is a unique reference work for researchers: the main body of the Handbook is produced in loose-leaf format in 3-ring binders and is accompanied by the bound Manual which contains all necessary background information and user guidelines. The loose-leaf Handbook forms the basis of the Handbook proper giving an overview of the subfields, traditions, methodologies and concepts of Pragmatics. The Handbook is used as a basis for the online version: the Handbook of Pragmatics Online is being expanded and revised annually as of 2003. Future versions will add further records and will include updates, rewritings and extensive revisions of already existing records. The Handbook of Pragmatics Online is available from www.benjamins.com/online as well as a free 30-day trial. The Handbook is also available in combination with the Bibliography of Pragmatics Online at a discounted rate.SPECIAL OFFER: 30% discount for a complete set order (Manual + Installments 1995-2007).