Colonial Botany

Author: Londa Schiebinger
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812293479
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the early modern world, botany was big science and big business, critical to Europe's national and trade ambitions. Tracing the dynamic relationships among plants, peoples, states, and economies over the course of three centuries, this collection of essays offers a lively challenge to a historiography that has emphasized the rise of modern botany as a story of taxonomies and "pure" systems of classification. Charting a new map of botany along colonial coordinates, reaching from Europe to the New World, India, Asia, and other points on the globe, Colonial Botany explores how the study, naming, cultivation, and marketing of rare and beautiful plants resulted from and shaped European voyages, conquests, global trade, and scientific exploration. From the earliest voyages of discovery, naturalists sought profitable plants for king and country, personal and corporate gain. Costly spices and valuable medicinal plants such as nutmeg, tobacco, sugar, Peruvian bark, peppers, cloves, cinnamon, and tea ranked prominently among the motivations for European voyages of discovery. At the same time, colonial profits depended largely on natural historical exploration and the precise identification and effective cultivation of profitable plants. This volume breaks new ground by treating the development of the science of botany in its colonial context and situating the early modern exploration of the plant world at the volatile nexus of science, commerce, and state politics. Written by scholars as international as their subjects, Colonial Botany uncovers an emerging cultural history of plants and botanical practices in Europe and its possessions.

A world of new things

Author: Anne Mariss
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593504774
Format: PDF
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Wie wurde naturkundliches Wissen im 18.Jahrhundert im Alltag »gemacht«? Entgegen älterer Ansätze begreift Anne Mariss in ihrer Studie naturhistorisches Forschen nicht als aufklärerisch-fortschrittsorientierten Prozess, sondern als ein zukunftsoffenes Wirken von Ideen und wissenschaftlichen Theorien einerseits, sozialen und kulturellen Praktiken andererseits. Ausgehend von der Person Johann Reinhold Forsters, der durch die zweite Weltumsegelung James Cooks (1772 – 1775) internationale Anerkennung erfuhr, an Bekanntheit jedoch hinter seinem Sohn Georg Forster zurücksteht, gelingt es ihr, die europäische Wissenslandschaft und deren globale Netzwerke aufscheinen zu lassen.

Handbuch Wissenschaftsgeschichte

Author: Marianne Sommer
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3476053474
Format: PDF, ePub
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Wie sind die Wissenschaften entstanden? Wie haben sie sich entwickelt? Wissenschaftsgeschichte hat als Disziplin eine ebenso lange und bewegte Geschichte wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit selbst. Das Handbuch gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über die historische und aktuelle Wissenschaftsgeschichte in ihrer Anwendung auf alle Wissenschaftszweige, stellt die unterschiedlichen Forschungsansätze vor und führt in die Globalgeschichte der Wissenschaften ein. Betrachtet werden dabei: Räume und Epochen, Orte der Wissensproduktion, Wissenschaft und die Geschichte der modernen Welt.

Wer das Gras wachsen h rt

Author: Simona Boscani Leoni
Publisher: StudienVerlag
ISBN: 3706558955
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In der Frühen Neuzeit entwickelte sich ein technisch-ökonomischer Blick auf die Natur. Seit dem späten 17. Jahrhundert begannen sich naturhistorische Beschreibungen mit kameralistischen Ideen zu verbinden. In weiterer Folge intensivierte die Bewegung der Ökonomischen Aufklärung den nutzenorientierten Umgang mit der Natur und machte diesen zum Gegenstand der öffentlichen Debatte. Diese spezifische Innovationskultur war von entscheidender Bedeutung für die folgenreiche Neuordnung agrarischen Wissens im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Die einzelnen Beiträge stellen je eine unterschiedliche Pflanzengruppe - Gemüse, Obst, Tabak, Futter-, Heil- oder Textilpflanzen - ins Zentrum. Im Fokus stehen Fragen nach der Interaktion zwischen den verschiedenen Akteuren wie Bauern, Gelehrte, Gutsbesitzer, Magistrate oder Pfarrherren. Besonders interessiert das Verhältnis der unterschiedlichen (praktischen, administrativen, gelehrten usw.) Wissensbestände. Gerade in der Perspektive der longue durée lösen sich dabei die einfachen Dichotomien auf, vielmehr erscheinen vielfältige Wechselbeziehungen, etwa zwischen agrarwissenschaftlicher Theorie und agrarischer Praxis.

Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology

Author: Daphna Havkin-Frenkel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444329377
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Vanilla is the world's most commonly-used flavour and fragrance, used in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other products and is therefore of considerable economic importance. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the science and technology used in the production and supply chain of vanilla products. A wide range of international authors cover topics which include agricultural production, global markets, analytical methods, sensory analysis, food and fragrance applications, organic and fair trade vanilla, diseases that affect vanilla, and novel uses. It is of interest to academic researchers in this field and is also an important resource for the vanilla industry and those companies that use vanilla and vanillin as flavours and fragrances worldwide. Key Features: The only book to cover such a wide range of topics on this most commercially valuable of flavour ingredients Includes an analysis of the current vanilla markets in the US and Europe Edited by experts who hold roles in the flavour industry and academic research

Jesuit Accounts of the Colonial Americas

Author: Marc André Bernier
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442663499
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In recent years scholars have turned their attention to the rich experience of the Jesuits in France and Spain’s American colonies. That attention has brought a flow of new editions and translations of Jesuit accounts of the Americas; it is now time for a study that examines the full range of that work in a comparative perspective. Jesuit Accounts of the Colonial Americas offers the first comprehensive examination of such writings and the role they played in solidifying images of the Americas. The collection also provides a much-needed re-examination of the work of the Jesuits in relation to Enlightenment ideals and the modern social sciences and humanities – two systems of thought that have in the past appeared radically opposed, but which are brought together here under the rubric of modern ethnographic knowledge. Linking Jesuit texts, the rhetorical tradition, and the newly emerging anthropology of the Enlightenment, this collection traverses the vast expanses of Old and New World France and Spain in fascinating new ways.

The Atlantic in World History

Author: Karen Ordahl Kupperman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019998655X
Format: PDF, ePub
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As Europeans began to move into the Atlantic in the late fifteenth century, first encountering islands and then two continents across the sea, they initiated a process that revolutionized the lives of people everywhere. American foods enriched their diets. Furs, precious metals, dyes, and many other products underwrote new luxury trades, and tobacco became the first consumer craze as the price plummeted with ever-enlarging production. Much of the technology that made new initiatives, such as sailing out of sight of land, possibly drew on Asian advances that came into Europe through North Africa. Sugar and other crops came along the same routes, and Europeans found American environments ideal for their cultivation. Leaders along the African coast controlled the developing trade with Europeans, and products from around the Atlantic entered African life. As American plantations were organized on an industrial scale, they became voracious consumers of labor. American Indians, European indentured servants, and enslaved Africans were all employed, and over time slavery became the predominant labor system in the plantation economies. American Indians adopted imported technologies and goods to enhance their own lives, but diseases endemic in the rest of the world to which Americans had no acquired immunity led to dramatic population decline in some areas. From Brazil to Canada, Indians withdrew into the interior, where they formed large and powerful new confederations. Atlantic exchange opened new possibilities. All around the ocean, states that had been marginal to the main centers in the continents' interiors now found themselves at the forefront of developing trades with the promise of wealth and power. European women and men whose prospects were circumscribed at home saw potential in emigration. Economic aspirations beckoned large numbers, but also, in the maelstrom following the Reformation, others sought the chance to worship as they saw fit. Many saw their hopes dashed, but some succeeded as they had desired. Ultimately, as people of African and European descent came to predominate in American populations, they broke political ties to Europe and reshaped transatlantic relationships.

Collectors Knowledge What Is Kept What Is Discarded Aufbewahren oder wegwerfen wie Sammler entscheiden

Author:
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004262164
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Collectors’ Knowledge: What is Kept, What is Discarded investigates how organized knowledge was acquired, shaped, and lost. Case studies examine collections of texts and objects from the thirteenth to the twentieth centuries–from libraries to royal and ducal treasures. - Collectors’ Knowledge: What Is Kept, What Is Discarded – Aufbewahren oder wegwerfen – wie Sammler entscheiden fragt, wie Wissen erworben und geformt wurde oder verloren ging. Fallstudien untersuchen Sammlungen von Texten und Objekten vom dreizehnten bis zwanzigsten Jahrhundert, von Bibliotheken zu herrschaftlichen Schätzen.

The Routledge History of Western Empires

Author: Robert Aldrich
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131799986X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Routledge History of Western Empires is an all new volume focusing on the history of Western Empires in a comparative and thematic perspective. Comprising of thirty-three original chapters arranged in eight thematic sections, the book explores European overseas expansion from the Age of Discovery to the Age of Decolonisation. Studies by both well-known historians and new scholars offer fresh, accessible perspectives on a multitude of themes ranging from colonialism in the Arctic to the scramble for the coral sea, from attitudes to the environment in the East Indies to plans for colonial settlement in Australasia. Chapters examine colonial attitudes towards poisonous animals and the history of colonial medicine, evangelisaton in Africa and Oceania, colonial recreation in the tropics and the tragedy of the slave trade. The Routledge History of Western Empires ranges over five centuries and crosses continents and oceans highlighting transnational and cross-cultural links in the imperial world and underscoring connections between colonial history and world history. Through lively and engaging case studies, contributors not only weigh in on historiographical debates on themes such as human rights, religion and empire, and the ‘taproots’ of imperialism, but also illustrate the various approaches to the writing of colonial history. A vital contribution to the field.