Commodities

Author: M. A. H. Dempster
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498712339
Format: PDF
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Since a major source of income for many countries comes from exporting commodities, price discovery and information transmission between commodity futures markets are key issues for continued economic development. This book covers the fundamental theory of and derivatives pricing for major commodity markets as well as the interaction between commodity prices, the real economy, and other financial markets. After an extensive theoretical and practical introduction, the book is divided into four parts: Oil Products – considers the structural changes in the demand and supply for hedging services that are increasingly determining the price of oil Other Commodities – examines markets related to agricultural commodities, including natural gas, wine, soybeans, corn, gold, silver, copper, and other metals Commodity Prices and Financial Markets – investigates the contemporary aspects of the financialization of commodities, including stocks, bonds, futures, currency markets, index products, and exchange traded funds Electricity Markets – supplies an overview of the current and future modelling of electricity markets With contributions from well-known academics and practitioners, this volume includes coverage of the fundamental theory of futures/forwards and derivatives pricing for major commodity markets. The contributions to Sections I and II of this volume, which treat storable or agricultural commodities, take speculation into account through a consideration of markets over time being either in backwardation or contango. Up-to-date considerations of both trading and investment are included in Sections I, II, and III. The book also reviews the effects of urbanization and the expanding middle-class population on commodities.

Stochastic Modelling of Electricity and Related Markets

Author: Fred Espen Benth
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812812318
Format: PDF, ePub
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The markets for electricity, gas and temperature have distinctive features, which provide the focus for countless studies. For instance, electricity and gas prices may soar several magnitudes above their normal levels within a short time due to imbalances in supply and demand, yielding what is known as spikes in the spot prices. The markets are also largely influenced by seasons, since power demand for heating and cooling varies over the year. The incompleteness of the markets, due to nonstorability of electricity and temperature as well as limited storage capacity of gas, makes spot-forward hedging impossible. Moreover, futures contracts are typically settled over a time period rather than at a fixed date. All these aspects of the markets create new challenges when analyzing price dynamics of spot, futures and other derivatives. This book provides a concise and rigorous treatment on the stochastic modeling of energy markets. OrnsteinOCoUhlenbeck processes are described as the basic modeling tool for spot price dynamics, where innovations are driven by time-inhomogeneous jump processes. Temperature futures are studied based on a continuous higher-order autoregressive model for the temperature dynamics. The theory presented here pays special attention to the seasonality of volatility and the Samuelson effect. Empirical studies using data from electricity, temperature and gas markets are given to link theory to practice. Sample Chapter(s). A Survey of Electricity and Related Markets (331 KB). Contents: A Survey of Electricity and Related Markets; Stochastic Analysis for Independent Increment Processes; Stochastic Models for the Energy Spot Price Dynamics; Pricing of Forwards and Swaps Based on the Spot Price; Applications to the Gas Markets; Modeling Forwards and Swaps Using the HeathOCoJarrowOCoMorton Approach; Constructing Smooth Forward Curves in Electricity Markets; Modeling of the Electricity Futures Market; Pricing and Hedging of Energy Options; Analysis of Temperature Derivatives. Readership: Researchers in energy and commodity markets, and mathematical finance.

Modeling and Valuation of Energy Structures

Author: Daniel Mahoney
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137560150
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Commodity markets present several challenges for quantitative modeling. These include high volatilities, small sample data sets, and physical, operational complexity. In addition, the set of traded products in commodity markets is more limited than in financial or equity markets, making value extraction through trading more difficult. These facts make it very easy for modeling efforts to run into serious problems, as many models are very sensitive to noise and hence can easily fail in practice. Modeling and Valuation of Energy Structures is a comprehensive guide to quantitative and statistical approaches that have been successfully employed in support of trading operations, reflecting the author's 17 years of experience as a front-office 'quant'. The major theme of the book is that simpler is usually better, a message that is drawn out through the reality of incomplete markets, small samples, and informational constraints. The necessary mathematical tools for understanding these issues are thoroughly developed, with many techniques (analytical, econometric, and numerical) collected in a single volume for the first time. A particular emphasis is placed on the central role that the underlying market resolution plays in valuation. Examples are provided to illustrate that robust, approximate valuations are to be preferred to overly ambitious attempts at detailed qualitative modeling.

C for Financial Mathematics

Author: John Armstrong
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498750079
Format: PDF
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If you know a little bit about financial mathematics but don’t yet know a lot about programming, then C++ for Financial Mathematics is for you. C++ is an essential skill for many jobs in quantitative finance, but learning it can be a daunting prospect. This book gathers together everything you need to know to price derivatives in C++ without unnecessary complexities or technicalities. It leads the reader step-by-step from programming novice to writing a sophisticated and flexible financial mathematics library. At every step, each new idea is motivated and illustrated with concrete financial examples. As employers understand, there is more to programming than knowing a computer language. As well as covering the core language features of C++, this book teaches the skills needed to write truly high quality software. These include topics such as unit tests, debugging, design patterns and data structures. The book teaches everything you need to know to solve realistic financial problems in C++. It can be used for self-study or as a textbook for an advanced undergraduate or master’s level course.

Introduction to Risk Parity and Budgeting

Author: Thierry Roncalli
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482207168
Format: PDF, ePub
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Although portfolio management didn’t change much during the 40 years after the seminal works of Markowitz and Sharpe, the development of risk budgeting techniques marked an important milestone in the deepening of the relationship between risk and asset management. Risk parity then became a popular financial model of investment after the global financial crisis in 2008. Today, pension funds and institutional investors are using this approach in the development of smart indexing and the redefinition of long-term investment policies. Written by a well-known expert of asset management and risk parity, Introduction to Risk Parity and Budgeting provides an up-to-date treatment of this alternative method to Markowitz optimization. It builds financial exposure to equities and commodities, considers credit risk in the management of bond portfolios, and designs long-term investment policy. The first part of the book gives a theoretical account of portfolio optimization and risk parity. The author discusses modern portfolio theory and offers a comprehensive guide to risk budgeting. Each chapter in the second part presents an application of risk parity to a specific asset class. The text covers risk-based equity indexation (also called smart beta) and shows how to use risk budgeting techniques to manage bond portfolios. It also explores alternative investments, such as commodities and hedge funds, and applies risk parity techniques to multi-asset classes. The book’s first appendix provides technical materials on optimization problems, copula functions, and dynamic asset allocation. The second appendix contains 30 tutorial exercises. Solutions to the exercises, slides for instructors, and Gauss computer programs to reproduce the book’s examples, tables, and figures are available on the author’s website.

Risk Management and Simulation

Author: Aparna Gupta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439835950
Format: PDF, Docs
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The challenges of the current financial environment have revealed the need for a new generation of professionals who combine training in traditional finance disciplines with an understanding of sophisticated quantitative and analytical tools. Risk Management and Simulation shows how simulation modeling and analysis can help you solve risk management problems related to market, credit, operational, business, and strategic risk. Simulation models and methodologies offer an effective way to address many of these problems and are easy for finance professionals to understand and use. Drawing on the author’s extensive teaching experience, this accessible book walks you through the concepts, models, and computational techniques. How Simulation Models Can Help You Manage Risk More Effectively Organized into four parts, the book begins with the concepts and framework for risk management. It then introduces the modeling and computational techniques for solving risk management problems, from model development, verification, and validation to designing simulation experiments and conducting appropriate output analysis. The third part of the book delves into specific issues of risk management in a range of risk types. These include market risk, equity risk, interest rate risk, commodity risk, currency risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, and strategic, business, and operational risks. The author also examines insurance as a mechanism for risk management and risk transfer. The final part of the book explores advanced concepts and techniques. The book contains extensive review questions and detailed quantitative or computational exercises in all chapters. Use of MATLAB® mathematical software is encouraged and suggestions for MATLAB functions are provided throughout. Learn Step by Step, from Basic Concepts to More Complex Models Packed with applied examples and exercises, this book builds from elementary models for risk to more sophisticated, dynamic models for risks that evolve over time. A comprehensive introduction to simulation modeling and analysis for risk management, it gives you the tools to better assess and manage the impact of risk in your organizations. The book can also serve as a support reference for readers preparing for CFA exams, GARP FRM exams, PRMIA PRM exams, and actuarial exams.

Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance

Author: Eric Chin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119966086
Format: PDF
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Mathematical finance requires the use of advanced mathematical techniques drawn from the theory of probability, stochastic processes and stochastic differential equations. These areas are generally introduced and developed at an abstract level, making it problematic when applying these techniques to practical issues in finance. Problems and Solutions in Mathematical Finance Volume I: Stochastic Calculus is the first of a four-volume set of books focusing on problems and solutions in mathematical finance. This volume introduces the reader to the basic stochastic calculus concepts required for the study of this important subject, providing a large number of worked examples which enable the reader to build the necessary foundation for more practical orientated problems in the later volumes. Through this application and by working through the numerous examples, the reader will properly understand and appreciate the fundamentals that underpin mathematical finance. Written mainly for students, industry practitioners and those involved in teaching in this field of study, Stochastic Calculus provides a valuable reference book to complement one’s further understanding of mathematical finance.