Community Structure and the Niche

Author: Paul Giller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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During the past two decades, there has been a gradual change of emphasis in ecological studies directed at unravelling the complexity of natural communities. Initially, the population approach was used, where interest lay in the way individual populations change and in the identification of factors af fecting these changes. A good understanding of the dynamics of single populations is now emerging, but this has not been a very fruitful approach at the community level. In the natural world, few species can be treated as isolated populations, as most single species are the interacting parts of multispecies systems. This has led to a community approach, involving the study of interrelationships between species within com munities and investigation of the actual organization of natural communities as a whole. The formalization of a number of new concepts and ideas has evolved from this approach, including niche theory, resource allocation, guild structure, limiting similarity, niche width and overlap etc. , which, until fairly recently, have been examined mainly from a theoretical point of view. However, a wealth of field data is gradually being added to the literature, especially from the general areas of island biogeography and resource partitioning amongst closely related species. Community structure embodies patterns of resource allocation and spatial and temporal abundance of species of the community, as well a. '1 community level properties such as trophic levels, succession, nutrient cycling etc.

Macrotransport Processes

Author: Howard Brenner
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080510590
Format: PDF, ePub
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This unique book, the first published on the subject, provides an introduction to the theory of macrotransport processes, a comprehensive effective-medium theory of transport phenomena in heterogeneous systems. The text begins with a relatively simple approach to the basic theory before turning to a more formal theoretical treatment which is extended in scope in each successive chapter. Many detailed examples, as well as questions appearing at the end of each chapter, are included to demonstrate the practical implementation of the theory. Macrotransport Processes is aimed at an audience already familiar with conventional theories of transport phenomena. This audience especially includes graduate students in chemical, mechanical, and civil engineering departments, as well as applied mathematicians, biomechanicists, and soil physics, particularly those with interests in problems of flow and dispersion in porous media.

Fundamentals of Geoenvironmental Engineering

Author: Abdel-Mohsen Onsy Mohamed
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128051450
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Fundamentals of Geoenvironmental Engineering: Understanding Soil, Water, and Pollutant Interaction and Transport examines soil-water-pollutant interaction, including physico-chemical processes that occur when soil is exposed to various contaminants. Soil characteristics relevant to remedial techniques are explored, providing foundations for the correct process selection. Built upon the authors' extensive experience in research and practice, the book updates and expands the content to include current processes and pollutants. The book discusses propagation of soil pollution and soil characteristics relevant to remedial techniques. Practicing geotechnical and environmental engineers can apply the theory and case studies in the book directly to current projects. The book first discusses the stages of economic development and their connections to the sustainability of the environment. Subsequent chapters cover waste and its management, soil systems, soil-water and soil-pollutant interactions, subsurface transport of pollutants, role of groundwater, nano-, micro- and biologic pollutants, soil characteristics that impact pollution diffusion, and potential remediation processes like mechanical, electric, magnetic, hydraulic and dielectric permittivity of soils. Presents a clear understanding of the propagation of pollutants in soils Identifies the physico-chemical processes in soils Covers emerging pollutants (nano-, micro- and biologic contaminants) Features in-depth coverage of hydraulic, electrical, magnetic and dielectric permittivity characteristics of soils and their impact on remedial technologies

Lees Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

Author: Frank Lees
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0123977827
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Safety in the process industries is critical for those who work with chemicals and hazardous substances or processes. The field of loss prevention is, and continues to be, of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, and Lees’ is a detailed reference to defending against hazards. Recognized as the standard work for chemical and process engineering safety professionals, it provides the most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment, regulations and laws covering the field of process safety. An entire library of alternative books (and cross-referencing systems) would be needed to replace or improve upon it, but everything of importance to safety professionals, engineers and managers can be found in this all-encompassing three volume reference instead. The process safety encyclopedia, trusted worldwide for over 30 years Now available in print and online, to aid searchability and portability Over 3,600 print pages cover the full scope of process safety and loss prevention, compiling theory, practice, standards, legislation, case studies and lessons learned in one resource as opposed to multiple sources

Use of Vegetation in Civil Engineering

Author: N. J. Coppin
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780860177111
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The guide gives the background to bioengineering and practical information on the design and implementation of vegetative methods for slope stabilisation, water erosion control, watercourse and shoreline protection, wind erosion control, shelter, noise reduction, surface protection and trafficability.

Ecological Effects of Water level Fluctuations in Lakes

Author: Karl M. Wantzen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402091926
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Most aquatic ecosystems have variable water levels. These water-level fluctuations (WLF) have multiple effects on the organisms above and below the waterline. Natural WLF patterns in lakes guarantee both productivity and biodiversity, while untimely floods and droughts may have negative effects. Human impacts on WLF have led to a stabilization of the water levels of many lakes by hydraulic regulation, untimely drawdown due to water use, or floods due to water release from hydropower plants in the catchments. This book provides a first review in this field. It presents selected papers on the ecological effects of WLF in lakes, resulting from a workshop at the University of Konstanz in winter 2005. Issues addressed here include the extent of WLF, and analyses of their effects on different groups of biota from microorganisms to vertebrates. Applied issues include recommendations for the hydrological management of regulated lakes to reduce negative impacts, and a conceptual framework is delivered by an extension of the floodpulse concept for lakes. Current impacts on water use, including increasing demands on drinking and irrigation water, hydropower etc., and climate change effects on WLF make this book an essential resource for aquatic ecologists, engineers, and decision-makers dealing with the management of lake ecosystems and their catchments.

Supercritical Fluids

Author: E. Kiran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139296
Format: PDF, ePub
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.