Comparison of Legal and Illegal Markets in Relation to the Organized Crime

Author: Alexander Bösenberg
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 364032658X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Essay from the year 2007 in the subject Sociology - Medical Care, printed single-sided, grade: 1,7, http: //www.uni-jena.de/ (Soziologie), course: Studies on Mafia and Economic Sociology, language: English, abstract: Cigarettes smuggling, gambling, prostitution, waste disposal, extortion, tax dodging and drug selling sounds like typically characteristics for the Mafia. It's clear, that these "branches" fall automatically into the hands of organized crime because they have nothing to do with legality and fair-play in modern state. But it's also clear, that illegal markets exist and that they work very efficient and profitable. For example the worldwide drug traffic achieved a various volume of ca. 600 to 1000 billion US $ each year (Schneider, 2006). That's more money used for drugs than for public research in the United States. So we can assume that illegal markets have a basis in supply and demand and they are important and present in every economy. On the other side there is a general liability to pure capitalism in every economy - legal and illegal. This mean, that entrepreneurs are stronger confronted by business competition, changing politics and locations, the phenomenon of globalization and fast changing trade conditions everywhere. The main target is still the same: having low costs as possible and a maximum of profit to survive. This paper wants to show the different terms and methods of legal and illegal markets and their entrepreneurs especially the organized crime. It also shows that legal and illegal activities particularly overlap.

Organized Crime

Author: Klaus von Lampe
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483321266
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Organized Crime: Analyzing Illegal Activities, Criminal Structures, and Extra-legal Governance provides a systematic overview of the processes and structures commonly labeled “organized crime,” drawing on the pertinent empirical and theoretical literature primarily from North America, Europe, and Australia. The main emphasis is placed on a comprehensive classificatory scheme that highlights underlying patterns and dynamics, rather than particular historical manifestations of organized crime. Esteemed author Klaus von Lampe strategically breaks the book down into three key dimensions: (1) illegal activities, (2) patterns of interpersonal relations that are directly or indirectly supporting these illegal activities, and (3) overarching illegal power structures that regulate and control these illegal activities and also extend their influence into the legal spheres of society. Within this framework, numerous case studies and topical issues from a variety of countries illustrate meaningful application of the conceptual and theoretical discussion.

Illegal Markets and the Economics of Organized Crime

Author: Martin Bouchard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317987500
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book showcases recent advances in the theoretical and empirical understanding of the economic aspects of organised crime and illegal markets. It provides new insights into defining and quantifying the influence of organised crime by drawing on innovative approaches to studying criminal networks and organisations such as the Hells Angels. The book includes analysis of the structure of illegal drug markets from international leaders in the field. Finally the text includes empirical case studies of the diverse markets where organised crime is currently active including the illegal market for crystal methamphetamine in Australia, tiger products in China and the falcon and fur trades in Russia. This book was based on a special issue of Global Crime.

The Crime that Pays

Author: Frederick John Desroches
Publisher: Canadian Scholars’ Press
ISBN: 1551302314
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Crime That Pays is a study of higher-level drug syndicates and organized criminals who have achieved huge incomes and status in their deviant occupation. Based on interviews with drug couriers, drug investigators, and 70 higher-level drug traffickers, the book describes the characteristics of offenders, their modus operandi, the entrepreneurial aspects of organized crime, and the significance of friendship, kinship, race, and ethnicity in the development of criminal networks. Most of the dealers in this study operated at the wholesale level for years, had realized huge profits, and lived extravagant lifestyles. For many, their arrest occurred only after the police had undertaken a sophisticated and proactive criminal investigation that took years to complete. Included in the text are an analysis of the police strategies used to combat drug trafficking and the social policy implications from this and other research studies. The book includes original research both on the RCMP and on higher-level drug trafficking. Also included are analyses of Canadian drug laws and a critique of social policy relating to drug use and drug trafficking.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender Sex and Crime

Author: Rosemary Gartner
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199838704
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The editors, Rosemary Gartner and Bill McCarthy, have assembled a diverse cast of criminologists, historians, legal scholars, psychologists, and sociologists from a number of countries to discuss key concepts and debates central to the field. The Handbook includes examinations of the historical and contemporary patterns of women's and men's involvement in crime; as well as biological, psychological, and social science perspectives on gender, sex, and criminal activity. Several essays discuss the ways in which sex and gender influence legal and popular reactions to crime. An important theme throughout The Handbook is the intersection of sex and gender with ethnicity, class, age, peer groups, and community as influences on crime and justice. Individual chapters investigate both conventional topics - such as domestic abuse and sexual violence - and topics that have only recently drawn the attention of scholars - such as human trafficking, honor killing, gender violence during war, state rape, and genocide.

Criminal Markets and Mafia Proceeds

Author: Ernesto U. Savona
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317577000
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book estimates the proceeds of crime and mafia revenues for different criminal markets such as sexual exploitation, drugs, illicit cigarettes, loan sharking, extortion racketeering, counterfeiting, illicit firearms, illegal gambling and illicit waste management. It is the first time that scholars have adopted detailed methodologies to ensure the highest reliability and validity of the estimation. Overall, estimated proceeds of crime amount to € 22.8 billion: 1.5% of the Italian GDP. Of this, up to € 10.7 billion (0.7 of the GDP) may be attributable to the Italian mafias. These figures are considerably lower than the ones most frequently circulated on the news, without any details about their methodology, which were defined by a UN study as "gross overestimates". Far from underestimating criminal revenues, the results of this study bring the issue of the proceeds of crime to an empirically-based debate, providing support for improved future estimates and more effective policies. The volume’s contributions were inspired by a project awarded by the Italian Ministry of Interior to Transcrime, which produced the first report on mafia investments (www.investimentioc.it). This book was originally published as a special issue of Global Crime.

Organised Crime in Europe

Author: Cyrille Fijnaut
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402027656
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume represents the first attempt to systematically compare organised crime concepts, as well as historical and contemporary patterns and control policies in thirteen European countries. These include seven ‘old’ EU Member States, two ‘new’ members, a candidate country, and three non-EU countries. Based on a standardised research protocol, thirty-three experts from different legal and social disciplines provide insight through detailed country reports. On this basis, the editors compare organised crime patterns and policies in Europe and assess EU initiatives against organised crime.

Entrepreneurship and Organised Crime

Author: Petter Gottschalk
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1848447337
Format: PDF, Docs
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Entrepreneurship and Organised Crime provides a much needed and original overview of the boundary between legal and illegal entrepreneurship. It will appeal to a wide variety of readers interested in new perspectives on entrepreneurship. The text is clearly structured and systematically explores the basics of organised crime as an entrepreneurial business enterprise. Petter Gottschalk draws upon several theoretical strands including organisational, sociological, managerial, historical, and practical perspectives in providing an insight into organised crime activity. Julia Davidson, Kingston University, UK Entrepreneurship and Organised Crime tarnishes the conventional clean and wholesome depiction of entrepreneurs by bringing to life the lived and messy realities of entrepreneurs who operate illegal businesses. Moving beyond the standard textbook positive and celebratory portrayal of entrepreneurs, this volume addresses in a highly readable manner both the entrepreneurial aspects of criminal endeavour as well as the criminal aspects of entrepreneurial endeavour. It is an essential and compelling read for scholars of entrepreneurship and criminology. Colin C. Williams, University of Sheffield, UK Entrepreneurship and Organised Crime provides a fresh and realistic insight into the problem of organised crime activity and the role of entrepreneurs in illegal business. Petter Gottschalk takes a close look at how some entrepreneurs choose to develop criminal business enterprises. Stage models for criminal entrepreneurs are presented, and entrepreneurial leadership and management are discussed. This book illustrates how so many issues for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship are similar in legal and illegal business. At the same time, all the cases in the book show how different many of the individual criminal entrepreneurs are. In sum, this book provides a pragmatic view of another kind of entrepreneurship not frequently discussed in a neutral way. This book will be warmly welcomed by scholars and researchers looking for a different perspective of entrepreneurship or interested in criminology. This will also be a good reference tool for students at police academies.