Competing with the Soviets

Author: Audra J. Wolfe
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421409011
Format: PDF, Kindle
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For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University

Author: Τζούλιαν Μπαρνς
Publisher: Metaichmio Publications
ISBN: 6180305609
Format: PDF
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Μάιος του 1937. Ένας τριαντάρης περιμένει δίπλα στον ανελκυστήρα μιας πολυκατοικίας του Λένινγκραντ. Περιμένει όλη τη νύχτα ότι ανά πάσα στιγμή θα τον οδηγήσουν στο Αρχηγείο της Υπηρεσίας Κρατικής Ασφάλειας. Καμιά από τις διασημότητες που γνώρισε την περασμένη δεκαετία δεν μπορεί τώρα να του φανεί χρήσιμη. Και ελάχιστοι από όσους οδηγούνται στο Αρχηγείο επιστρέφουν. Αυτή είναι η αφετηρία του νέου αριστουργηματικού μυθιστορήματος του Μπαρνς, μια ιστορία για τη σύγκρουση ζωής και τέχνης, το θάρρος, τη δειλία, και τον πόνο του αναπόφευκτου συμβιβασμού. Το βιβλίο αναφέρεται στη ζωή, το έργο του Ντμίτρι Σοστακόβιτς καθώς και στη σύγκρουσή του με το σταλινικό καθεστώς.

Central Asia Security and Strategic Imperatives

Author: Tabassum Firdous
Publisher: Gyan Publishing House
ISBN: 9788178350790
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The present study offers an assessment of security concerns in Central Asia after the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. It deals with the transition period for the five Central Asian States from the communist system to a democratic and pluralistic one. Essentially, the focus of the writer is on bilateral, multilateral and international commitments of these States to ensure peace and security in the region. The withdrawal of nuclear warheads from Kazakhstan, collective security formula, bilateral agreements and the role of the big powers all make an interesting study. The author has discussed these concerns in the context of the stance of neighbouring States vis-a-vis Central Asia. Economic interests also figure wherever necessary. This work is highly useful to those who would like to concentrate on any aspect of history in Central Asia and adjoining regions in the post-Soviet period.

Gorbachev

Author: Il'ja G. Zemcov
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412813824
Format: PDF, Docs
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Gorbachev: The Man and the System portrays Gorbachev's rise to power and his tenure in office against the background of a period of critical change and development in the Soviet system. The research is primarily based on Soviet materials, supplemented and critically compared with a wide range of Western press and academic studies. Both Zemtsov and Farrar bring to the analysis their own experiences, acquired under different circumstances. Part I focuses on a selected chronology of significant events from Gorbachev's assumption of power in March 1985 to June 1987. They examine leadership and personnel changes, the economy, the society, and the arts. Part II takes a look at foreign policies by examining: relations with the United States and the industrialized West; arms control policy; relations with Eastern Europe; relations with the People's Republic of China; and relations with the third world. Part III explores Gorbachev's military policies. Part IV concludes with the authors' assessment of the future. Included in this book are appendices on: changes in the Council of Ministers, Ministers, and Chairmen of State Committees; Politburo and central committee meetings since Gorbachev became General Secretary, through June 1987; and announced changes in the Diplomatic Corps and Foreign Ministry as reported in the Soviet press. The hardcover edition of this book was published in Gorbachev's early years. It thus represents an early assessment, and as such a document of events at the time they occurred.

Analyzing Strategic Nuclear Policy

Author: Charles L. Glaser
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400862027
Format: PDF, ePub
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With sweeping changes in the Soviet Union and East Europe having shaken core assumptions of U.S. defense policy, it is time to reassess basic questions of American nuclear strategy and force requirements. In a comprehensive analysis of these issues, Charles Glaser argues that even before the recent easing of tension with the Soviet Union, the United States should have revised its nuclear strategy, rejecting deterrent threats that require the ability to destroy Soviet nuclear forces and forgoing entirely efforts to limit damage if all-out nuclear war occurs. Changes in the Soviet Union, suggests Glaser, may be best viewed as creating an opportunity to make revisions that are more than twenty years overdue. Glaser's provocative work is organized in three parts. "The Questions behind the Questions" evaluates the basic factual and theoretical disputes that underlie disagreements about U.S. nuclear weapons policy. "Alternative Nuclear Worlds" compares "mutual assured destruction capabilities" (MAD)--a world in which both superpowers' societies are highly vulnerable to nuclear retaliation--to the basic alternatives: mutual perfect defenses, U.S. superiority, and nuclear disarmament. Would any basic alternatives be preferable to MAD? Drawing on the earlier sections of the book, "Decisions in MAD" addresses key choices facing American decision makers. Originally published in 1990. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Globalization and WMD Proliferation

Author: James A. Russell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134079702
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This edited volume explores the relationship between the accelerating process of globalization and the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, which is increasingly seen as the pre-eminent threat to international security. The proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction has traditionally been seen as a function of the 'security dilemma' in the state-based international system. But the advent of the nuclear supply network pieced together by the Pakistani scientist A. Q. Khan represented a departure from this model, involving a variety of organizations not directly connected to a state. This volume assembles an international group of experts in order to assess the relationship between proliferation and globalization to ascertain how contemporary communication, transportation and financial networks are facilitating or constraining trade in dangerous contraband. The book ultimately seeks to determine whether globalization is fundamentally altering the nature of the proliferation problem, particularly the threat that Weapons of Mass Destruction might fall into the hands of terrorists. This book will be of much interest to students of nuclear proliferation, international security, terrorism and IR in general.

Chemical and Biological Warfare

Author: Albert J. Mauroni
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598840274
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A thorough handbook covering the facts, history, and controversies surrounding our most controversial and misunderstood unconventional weapons. * Outstanding research aids include key Internet and published references and an index offering rapid access to entries on key figures, government agencies, and defensive equipment * A chronology of chemical-biological warfare incidents from the mid-20th century onward offers a thorough historical overview

Exploring the Moon and Mars

Author:
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1568060416
Format: PDF
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An assessment of the potential for automation and robotics technology to assist in the exploration of the Moon and Mars, and how greater attention to automation and robotics technologies could contribute to U.S. space exploration efforts. Also discusses the goals of the U.S. civilian space program. Charts and tables.

Shostakovich

Author: Laurel Fay
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199881154
Format: PDF
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For this authoritative post-cold-war biography of Shostakovich's illustrious but turbulent career under Soviet rule, Laurel E. Fay has gone back to primary documents: Shostakovich's many letters, concert programs and reviews, newspaper articles, and diaries of his contemporaries. An indefatigable worker, he wrote his arresting music despite deprivations during the Nazi invasion and constant surveillance under Stalin's regime. Shostakovich's life is a fascinating example of the paradoxes of living as an artist under totalitarian rule. In August 1942, his Seventh Symphony, written as a protest against fascism, was performed in Nazi-besieged Leningrad by the city's surviving musicians, and was triumphantly broadcast to the German troops, who had been bombarded beforehand to silence them. Alone among his artistic peers, he survived successive Stalinist cultural purges and won the Stalin Prize five times, yet in 1948 he was dismissed from his conservatory teaching positions, and many of his works were banned from performance. He prudently censored himself, in one case putting aside a work based on Jewish folk poems. Under later regimes he balanced a career as a model Soviet, holding government positions and acting as an international ambassador with his unflagging artistic ambitions. In the years since his death in 1975, many have embraced a view of Shostakovich as a lifelong dissident who encoded anti-Communist messages in his music. This lucid and fascinating biography demonstrates that the reality was much more complex. Laurel Fay's book includes a detailed list of works, a glossary of names, and an extensive bibliography, making it an indispensable resource for future studies of Shostakovich.

Ralph Ellison

Author: Gerald Lyn Early
Publisher: Marshall Cavendish
ISBN: 9780761446996
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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An in-depth analysis of Ralph Ellison, his writings, and the historical time period in which they were written.